Cock, Matthew J. W., Congdon, T. Colin E. & Collins, Steve C., 2016, Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Part 9. Hesperiinae incertae sedis: Zingiberales feeders, genera of unknown biology and an overview of the Hesperiinae incertae sedis, Zootaxa 4066 (3), pp. 201-247: 238

publication ID


publication LSID




persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name



Discussion, Zingiberales   feeders

Several Zingiberaceae- and Costaceae-feeders show a distinctive feature of the pupa, i.e. the C-shaped rim to the T 1 spiracle. This has been found in species of Semalea   , Xanthodisca   , Hypoleucis   and Caenides   reported here, and can also be seen in the palm-feeding Caenides dacela (Cock et al. 2014)   . In Semalea   , and Caenides   , this rim is similar in colour to the rest of the pupa, but in Xanthodisca   and Hypoleucis   it is differentiated by colour, so that the rim could be seen as forming a counterfeit eye ( Janzen et al. 2010). Apart from Hypoleucis   , the caterpillars of these genera also have slightly narrower heads than is the case with other genera. Of this group of genera, we have only documented the ova of Semalea   spp. ( Figures 14 View FIGURE 14 and 19 View FIGURE 19 ), so although these are markedly different from other Hesperiinae   genera for which we have documented the eggs, we cannot generalise to the other genera that feed on Zingiberaceae   and Costaceae   . However, we suggest this pupal character may be indicative of a natural genera group within the Afrotropical Hesperiinae   incertae sedis. They are unlikely to be closely related to Asian Zingiberaceae- and Costaceae-feeders such as Notocrypta   spp., Udaspes   spp. and Ancistroides   spp. which have similar caterpillars, but have pupae of what we have referred to as the Baorini   type ( Cock & Congdon 2012).