Cock, Matthew J. W., Congdon, T. Colin E. & Collins, Steve C., 2016, Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Part 9. Hesperiinae incertae sedis: Zingiberales feeders, genera of unknown biology and an overview of the Hesperiinae incertae sedis, Zootaxa 4066 (3), pp. 201-247: 228

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The Marantaceae   feeders

Four Afrotropical Hesperiinae   incertae sedis genera are known to include Marantaceae   feeders. Rhabdomantis   and Osmodes   have only been recorded from Marantaceae   , whereas Xanthodisca   and Caenides   include selected representatives that use this food plant family and both are paraphyletic.

The genus Rhabdomantis   comprises two species and only differs from Osmodes   in the absence of any brand on the hindwing and in the appearance, particularly in the absence of silvery spots on the hindwing below according to Evans (1937). Although Larsen (2005) suggests there are affinities between the genitalia of Rhabdomantis   and Osmodes   , he subsequently changed his view, considering the genitalia to be very different (T.B. Larsen pers. comm. 2014, 2015). The type species, R. galatia (Hewitson)   is found from Sierra Leone to western Uganda ( Evans 1937, Ackery et al. 1995). Vuattoux (1999) reports rearing a single specimen from Trachyphrynium braunianum   ( Marantaceae   ) in Côte d’Ivoire. This record is repeated by Larsen (2005) and Vande weghe (2010). There is no other information on the biology of this genus.

As discussed above under Xanthodisca   , the late T.B. Larsen (pers. comm. 2015) planned to establish a new genus for X. astrape   , a species that had been placed in Xanthodisca   but is not closely related to this or any other genera of Hesperiinae   incertae sedis. We have not reared this species, but Vuattoux (1999) reared one specimen from T. braunianum   ( Marantaceae   ) in Côte d’Ivoire; this record is repeated in Larsen (2005) and Vande weghe (2010). Unfortunately we have no further information on the early stages of this genus.

Caenides kangvensis   has been reared from the lily Gloriosa superba   ( Colchicaceae   , formerly Liliaceae   ) and Thalia geniculata   (= T. welwitschii   ) ( Marantaceae   ) ( Vuattoux 1999), but the early stages have not been documented. As noted above, other Caenides   spp. feed on Arecaceae   , Zingiberaceae   and Costaceae   .