Suzuki, Noritoshi, Caulet, Jean-Pierre & Dumitrica, Paulian, 2021, A new integrated morpho- and molecular systematic classification of Cenozoic radiolarians (Class Polycystinea) - suprageneric taxonomy and logical nomenclatorial acts, Geodiversitas 43 (15), pp. 405-573: 447

publication ID 10.5252/geodiversitas2021v43a15

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name



Superfamily PHORTICIOIDEA Haeckel, 1882   n. stat.

Phorticida Haeckel, 1882: 464 [as a subfamily]; 1887: 604, 708 [as a family].

Larnacillilae – De Wever et al. 2001: 153 [as a subsuperfamily].

Larnacillioidea [sic] – Afanasieva et al. 2005: S287 (= Larnacilloidea). — Afanasieva & Amon 2006: 129.

DIAGNOSIS. — Spumellarians with a heteropolar and ring-shaped (or ringed-ribbon shaped). Microsphere having two pairs of opposite gates growing in younger, or all stages, by formation of systems of three successively larges elliptical latticed girdles, which are disposed in three mutually perpendicular planes.


The superfamily name “Larnacillilae” is herein replaced by Phorticioidea   .The type genus of the former is a nomen dubium as the type species is unillustrated. The Phorticioidea   consist of the Amphitholidae   (Clade M1), Circodiscidae   , Cryptolarnaciidae   (Clade M2), Histiastridae   and Phorticiidae   .The Phorticioidea   genera with girdles (e.g., Phorticium, Qiuripylolena, Sphaerolarnacillium   ) are differentiated from the Larcospiroidea   genera with girdles (e.g., Pylospira, Tholospira, Sphaeropylolena   , Pylozonium   , Tetrapyle   ). Identifying Phorticioidea   members is quite difficult as they appear to change appearance in different orientations, even when observing the same specimen ( Tan & Chen 1990: pls 1, 2; Itaki 2009: pl. 10, figs 1-5, 10, 12, 13; Ogane & Suzuki   2009: figs 2-4; et al. 2013: figs 3, 4). By using three-dimension resin models, the different orientations at different growth stages were illustrated by Zhang & Suzuki   (2017: 8, fig. 3). To understand the organization of the skeleton is essential to gather: the absolute and relative geometrical cartesian coordinates, their mathematical expression, and the difference between anatomical recognition and visual perception under light microscopy ( Zhang & Suzuki   2017: 5-8, 9-13). A failure to understand these points will surely lead to a series of fruitless debates. Phorticioidea   are only distinguishable from Larcospiroidea   in the absence of an S1a-girdle in the sense of Zhang & Suzuki   (2017). The appearance of the triangle itself has no value in determining taxonomy. Instead of an S1a-girdle, a G1a girdle is directly attached to the microsphere (S1a) (see fig. 5.5 in Zhang & Suzuki   2017). This structure can be observed in several cases under a light microscope with the Plan or S-Plan level objec- tive lens, and with a correction ring to adjust the optical spherical abbreviation ( Zhang & Suzuki   2017: 4). The view from the overlapped orientation of the microsphere (S1a) and S1a-girdle in the Phorticioidea   resembles the central part of Larcospiroidea   (compare figs 5.2 with fig. 5.5 in Zhang & Suzuki   2017). In this view, the central part appears spherical in Phorticioidea   .