ANTHOCYRTIDIDAE Haeckel, 1882

Suzuki, Noritoshi, Caulet, Jean-Pierre & Dumitrica, Paulian, 2021, A new integrated morpho- and molecular systematic classification of Cenozoic radiolarians (Class Polycystinea) - suprageneric taxonomy and logical nomenclatorial acts, Geodiversitas 43 (15), pp. 405-573: 497

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http://doi.org/ 10.5252/geodiversitas2021v43a15

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scientific name

ANTHOCYRTIDIDAE Haeckel, 1882
status

 

Family ANTHOCYRTIDIDAE Haeckel, 1882 

sensu Caulet emend. herein

Anthocyrtida Haeckel, 1882: 430 [below tribe]; Haeckel 1887: 1192, 1241-1242 [as a family]. — Bütschli 1889: 1988 [as a family].

Anthocyrtiden – Haecker 1907: 125-126 [as a family].

Anthocyrtidae   [sic] – Popofsky, 1908: 285 (= Anthocyrtididae   );1913: 359. — Schröder 1914: 100. — Clark & Campbell 1942: 72; 1945: 38. — Dogiel & Reshetnyak 1955: 48. — Chediya 1959: 205. — Tan & Tchang 1976: 280. — Tan & Su 1982: 172. — Nishimura 1990: 145 ( sensu emend.   ). — Chen &Tan 1996: 153. — Tan & Chen 1999: 313. — Tan & Su 2003: 113, 155. — Chen et al. 2017: 198.

Anthocyrtididae   – Poche 1913: 221.

Anthocyrtinae [sic] – Orlev 1959: 455 (= Anthocyrtidinae).

Neosciadiocapsidae Pessagno, 1969: 392-394   ; 1976: 45-46; 1977b: 935. — Petrushevskaya & Kozlova 1972: 540. — Dumitrica 1979: 31-32. — De Wever 1982b: 284. —Kozur 1984: 65. — O’Dogherty 1994: 277. — Hollis 1997: 72. — O’Connor 1999: 13 ( sensu emend.   ). — De Wever et al. 2001: 233, 235.

Neosciodiocapsidae [sic] – Tochilina 1989b: 61 (= Neosciadiocapsidae   ).

Neosciadiocapsinae – Afanasieva et al. 2005: S294. — Afanasieva & Amon 2006: 141.

TYPE GENUS. — Anthocyrtis Ehrenberg, 1846: 385   [type species by monotypy: Anthocyrtis mespilus Ehrenberg, 1847: 55   ].

INCLUDED GENERA (CENOZOIC ONLY). — Anthocyrtis Ehrenberg, 1846: 385   (= Anthocyrtella   with the same type species; Anthocyrtarium   n. syn., Anthocyrtium   n. syn., Clathrocyclas   n. syn., Clathrocyclia   n. syn., Coniforma   n. syn.). — Eurystomoskevos Caulet, 1991: 536   . — Microsciadiocapsa Pessagno, 1969: 403   (= Lipmanium   synonymized by Petrushevskaya 1981: 152; Scyphiforma   synonymized byPetrushevskaya 1981: 153; Squinabolella   synonymized by O’Dogherty 1994: 227). DIAGNOSIS. — Anthocyrtididae   can be viewed as Theopilioidea   with a ventral tube or with a trace of it on the cephalis. The development status of the apical horn is variable among genera. The aperture is always open. The cephalic initial has MB, A-, V-, D-, double L-, and double l-rods. The Ax-rod may be present or absent by cause of an infra-species variation. The basal ring is completely merged with the shell wall, and in certain cases its inner edge is recognizable in the cephalis. The basal ring is directly connected with D-, V-, double L- and double l-rods. However, the arches (double Dl-arch) of the basal ring’s apical side are missing, partly merged with the shell wall, or completely merged on the shell wall as relatively large pores. This variation changes the number of visible collar pores from four to six. The D-rod extends downward while the V-rod rises up. The A-rod side of the basal ring is bended downward along the double l-rod, while the V-side of the basal ring is bended upwards along the double L-rod. The MB is extended from the center to the A-rod side of the cephalic cavity. The A-rod is free in the cephalic cavity and extends vertically relative to MB. The ventral tube opens below the V-rod. The D- and double L-rods form a rod-like wing in some members. The triple-branched terminal parts of the L- and l-rod are visible from the aperture view.

STRATIGRAPHIC OCCURRENCE. — Early Berriasian-Late Oligocene.

REMARKS

It appears difficult distinguish the Anthocyrtididae   from the Theopiliidae   and Cycladophoridae   due to homeomorphy. Differing from the Anthocyrtididae   , both the Theopiliidae   and Cycladophoridae   lack a ventral tube or a semblance of its trace. The Anthocyrtididae   are commonly found in the late Cretaceous while Cenozoic members are uncommon. The relationship among the three families is not yet fully understood. This can be attributed to the nearly identical cephalic structure between the Theopiliidae   and Cycladophoridae   , regardless of them being distant families at Lineage level ( Sandin et al. 2019; See also remarks for Theopiliidae   and Cycladophoridae   ). Tochilina & Vasilenko (2015, 2018b) identified Anthocyrtididae’s overall resemblance to Cycladophoridae   as opposed to the Theopiliidae   . The cephalic structure was illustrated for Cretaceous “ Neosciadiocapsidae   ” ( Pessagno 1969: pl. 24, figs 1, 2, pl. 27, figs 1, 2, pl. 30, figs 1, 2, pl. 34, figs 1, 2, pl. 35, figs 1, 2, pl. 35, fig. 7, pl. 36, figs 1, 2, pl. 37, figs 3, 6, pl. 38, figs 1, 2), for Paleocene Anthocyrtis   ( Nishimura 1992: pl. 4, figs 6, 9) and for Eocene Anthocyrtis   ( O’Connor 1999: pl. 2, figs 12-22). Based on the stable position of the Ax-rod, the codes indicated by Pessagno (1969) may lead to confusion. The “a” in pl. 24, fig. 1 and “c” in pl. 30, figs 1 and 2 are V-rod. The cephalis and upper part of the thorax are covered by an imperforated thick siliceous wall in most Anthocyrtididae   . In some Cenozoic members, these parts are not covered with a wall. In such cases, the double Dl-arch extends as a part of the thoracic pore frame (e.g., Nishimura 1992: pl. 4, figs 6b, 9b).

VALIDITY OF GENERA

Anthocyrtis  

The following genus combinations share the same type species: Anthocyrtis   and Anthocyrtella   , Anthocyrtium   and Anthocyrtarium   , and Clathrocyclas   and Clathrocyclia   . Like Astrophormis   and Theophormis   , Anthocyrtium   and Anthocyrtis   were classified into “Sethophormidinae of the Sethophormididae   within subsu- perfamily Sethopiliilae” ( Campbell 1954: D122, 124-126), whereas Clathrocyclas   was classified into “Theophormidinae of the Theophormididae   within subsuperfamily Teopiliilae” ( Campbell 1954: D129, 132) sensu Campbell (1954)   . As discussed in detail, the taxa subsuperfamily, family, and subfamily are meaningless for these genera. Anthocyrtium   is characterized by 12 or more feet ( Campbell 1954: D125); Anthocyrtis   has a distinctive cephalis from the thorax, and only 6 feet ( Campbell 1954: D125-126); and Clathrocyclas   features a conical shell and a single terminal corona of feet ( Campbell 1954: D132). One difference among species is the prominence of the stricture between the cephalis and thorax; however, this difference is less distinctive at the genus level. The number of feet differs among genera, but the lectotype of Anthocyrtis mespilus   , the type species of Anthocyrtis   , does not have six feet. Although the number of feet has not been confirmed for other type species using real specimens, this difference is insufficient to distinguish specimens at the genus level. Coniforma   is a late Cretaceous genus with a corona-like skirt and many very short feet, which are characteristics that are phylogenetically associated with Anthocyrtis   . It is unnecessary to maintain Coniforma   as an independent genus within this family. The oldest available name for these specimens is Anthocyrtis   .

Loc

ANTHOCYRTIDIDAE Haeckel, 1882

Suzuki, Noritoshi, Caulet, Jean-Pierre & Dumitrica, Paulian 2021
2021
Loc

Eurystomoskevos

Caulet 1991: 536
1991
Loc

Neosciadiocapsidae

Pessagno 1969: 392 - 394
1969
Loc

Neosciadiocapsidae

Pessagno 1969
1969
Loc

Coniforma

Pessagno 1969
1969
Loc

Microsciadiocapsa

Pessagno 1969: 403
1969
Loc

Lipmanium

Pessagno 1969
1969
Loc

Scyphiforma

Pessagno 1969
1969
Loc

Anthocyrtella

Haeckel 1887
1887
Loc

Anthocyrtarium

Haeckel 1887
1887
Loc

Anthocyrtium

Haeckel 1887
1887
Loc

Clathrocyclia

Haeckel 1887
1887
Loc

Anthocyrtididae

Haeckel 1882
1882
Loc

Anthocyrtididae

Haeckel 1882
1882
Loc

Anthocyrtididae

Haeckel 1882
1882
Loc

Theopilioidea

Haeckel 1882
1882
Loc

Anthocyrtis

Ehrenberg 1846: 385
1846