CARPOCANIIDAE Haeckel, 1882
Suzuki, Noritoshi, Caulet, Jean-Pierre & Dumitrica, Paulian, 2021, A new integrated morpho- and molecular systematic classification of Cenozoic radiolarians (Class Polycystinea) - suprageneric taxonomy and logical nomenclatorial acts, Geodiversitas 43 (15), pp. 405-573: 478-479
treatment provided by
|CARPOCANIIDAE Haeckel, 1882|
Family CARPOCANIIDAE Haeckel, 1882
sensu Sugiyama (1998)
Carpocanida Haeckel, 1882: 427 [below a tribe].
Cyrtocalpida Haeckel, 1882: 427 [below tribe]; 1887: 1133 1178- 1179 [as a family]. — Wisniowski 1889: 687. — Bütschli 1889: 1986 [as a family]. — nec Rüst 1892: 179 [as a family]. — nec Cayeux 1894: 207.
Cyrtocalpidae [sic] – Popofsky 1908: 273 (= Cyrtocalpididae);1913: 332. — Schröder 1914: 91. — Clark & Campbell 1942: 65; 1945: 35. — Campbell & Clark 1944a: 39; 1944b: 22. — Chediya 1959: 196. — Chen & Tan 1996: 153. — Tan & Chen 1999: 295. — Tan & Su 2003: 113, 125. — Chen et al. 2017: 179.
Cyrtocalpididae – Poche 1913: 220.
Cyrtocalpinae [sic] – Orlev 1959: 454 (= Cyrtocalpididae).
Carpocaniidae – Riedel 1967b: 296 ( sensu emend. ); 1971: 656- 657. — Petrushevskaya 1971a: 238; 1971b: 988; 1975: 587- 588; 1981: 255-256. — Riedel & Sanfilippo 1971: 1596; 1977: 875. — Petrushevskaya & Kozlova 1972: 535. — Nakaseko et al. 1975: 174. — Nakaseko & Sugano 1976: 130. — Dumitrica 1979: 35. — Tan & Su 1982: 175. — Anderson 1983: 42. — Sanfilippo et al. 1985: 690. — Nishimura 1990: 165 ( sensu emend. ). — Takahashi 1991: 130. — Chen & Tan 1996: 154. — Hollis 1997: 62. — Boltovskoy 1998: 33. — Sugiyama 1998: 234. — Kozlova 1999: 142-143. — Tan & Chen 1999: 319. — Anderson et al. 2002: 1018. — De Wever et al. 2001: 256. — Tan & Su 2003: 113, 165. — Afanasieva et al. 2005: S299. — Afanasieva & Amon 2006: 148. — Matsuzaki et al. 2015: 66.
Carpocaniinae – Petrushevskaya & Kozlova 1972: 535. — De Wever et al. 2001: 258.
Carpocannidae [sic] – Sanfilippo & Riedel 1973: 530 (= Carpocaniidae ).
Carpocanidae [sic] – Amon 2000: 68 (= Carpocaniidae ).
INCLUDED GENERA. — Anthocyrturium Haeckel, 1887: 1276 . — Artobotrys Petrushevskaya 1971a: 237 . — Carpocanium Ehrenberg, 1846: 385 (= Carpocanidium with the same type species; Asecta synonymized by Petrushevskaya 1971a: 240; Cyrtocalpis synonymized by Petrushevskaya 1971a: 239; Cryptoprora n. syn., Spongiocanium n. syn.; Sethamphora synonymized by Petrushevskaya & Kozlova 1972: 535). — Carpocanopsis Riedel & Sanfilippo, 1971: 1596 (= Cryptocarpium n. syn.). — Tripterocalpis Haeckel, 1882: 427 .
DIAGNOSIS. — Carpocaniidae having two ovoidal segments. Little to no trace of a collar constriction between the very small cephalis and large thorax is observed. The initial cephalic structure is quite complex and consists of MB, A-, V-, D-, double l-, and double L-rods. The Ax-rod may be present or absent. The basal ring well-developed and isolated from the shell wall; it is directly connected to the MB, double L-, double l- and V-rods to form four collar pores. No Dl-arches development is observed. The double collar pores related to Ll-arch are larger than the double collar pores related to the LV-arch. The basal ring is bended along the double L-rods, and the double collar pores related to LV-arch is oriented upward at high angle. The A-, D- and double L-rods are directly connected to the shell wall, but the end of the V-rod is free, acting as a very small spine. From the basal ring several rods extend laterally and several other reach up the cephalic wall. The lateral rods are D-rods, double L-rods, double supplement rods emerging from the Ll-arch near the ends of the l-rod, and other supplementary rods. The upward-oriented rods are A-rod type, with double supplementary rods arising from the mid-point of Ll- and LV-arches. These rods originating from the basal ring either join the shell wall or branch further to eventually join the shell wall.
The endoplasm of variable size may be located in the upper half of the shell or present in the entire shell. Bundle of pseudopodia mainly extends downward from the shell aperture. No thick stick-like pseudopodium (axial projection) are observed. Algal symbionts are found in shallow water Carpocanium species around the distal end of the endoplasm.
STRATIGRAPHIC OCCURRENCE. — Early Eocene-Living.
The structure of the cephalic initial spicular system of Carpocanium varies among different papers.However, there is consensus regarding the very complex structure embedded in the flattened cephalic part ( Caulet 1974: pl. 8, figs 3-6; Nishimura 1990: figs 42, 43; Sugiyama et al. 1992: pl. 27, figs 7b, 9b; O’Connor 1997b: pl. 5, fig. 8; Sugiyama 1998: pl. 5, fig. 8b). Although almost all supplement rods and arches above the basal ring were omitted, a schematic structure is illustrated in Sandin et al. (2019: supplement 1). Carpocanopsis ( O’Connor 1999: pl. 2, fig. 5, text-fig. 5) also has a very complex cephalic structure similar to Carpocanium . The cephalic structures in the remaining genera are unknown. “Living” and protoplasm images were illustrated for Carpocanium ( Matsuoka 1993a: fig.2.8; Suzuki &Not 2015: fig. 8.11.22; Zhang et al. 2018: 10, figs 2.1-2.3).
VALIDITY OF GENERA
have already been synonymized with Carpocanium ( Petrushevskaya 1971a; Petrushevskaya & Kozlova 1972). Cryptoprora was once classified in the “Theophormidinae of the Theophormididae ” with a subsequent designation of the type species as “ C. fundicola ” in Campbell (1954: D132). However, the first species related to Cryptoprora is Cryptoprora plutonis in Ehrenberg (1854b). This species has never been illustrated before 2009 but the real specimen, as indicated by Ehrenberg himself, was specified in the Ehrenberg collection ( Suzuki et al. 2009c: pl. 32, figs 8a-c), and the taxonomic availability of this genus was guaranteed. The lectotype is obviously identified as “ Carpocanium ” although this shell is filled with an internal bubble. Spongiocanium was defined as “ Carpocaniidae with spongy wall and V ray attached to cephalic wall. Shell ovate or subcylindrical. Cephalis without A spine . Thorax without peristome. Shell wall composed of inner lattice and outer spongy layers ” ( Nishimura1990: 169) and was individualized by a spongy shell wall. The type specimens have rough surfaces with nodes on pore frames, but no spongy structure defined by complex fibers or an irregular distribution of bubble-like structures. Its recognition is wrong so that Spongiocanium is a synonym of Carpocanium . The oldest available name is Carpocanium among those published by Ehrenberg (1846: 385). Some papers indicate a published year for Cryptoprora in 1846 but this is a volume number, not the published year ( Lazarus & Suzuki 2009).
Riedel & Sanfilippo (1971: 1596) erected Carpocanopsis to provide a category, distinct from the genus Carpocanistrum , for a group of carpocaniids with a heavy structure, with abdomen, and a lumber stricture that is internally pronounced. These points are actually different in the type specimens of Carpocanium . Specimens identifiable as Carpocanopsis are limitedly found from the lower Eocene to lower upper Miocene, differing from Carpocanium ; but these two genera are artificially divided for biostratigraphic purposes. Cryptocarpium was erected by Sanfilippo & Riedel (1992: 6) with Cryptoprora ornata Ehrenberg as a three segmented pterocorythid. After this erection, the type specimen examined by Ehrenberg himself was located in the Ehrenberg collection ( Ogane et al. 2009b: pl. 83, figs 5a-d). The specimen is poorly preserved but it is not regarded as a member of the pterocorythids and three segments correspond to the morphotype of Carpocanopsis but are not of pterocorythid-type. They are difficult to differentiate from each other. Carpocanopsis is an available name older than Cryptocarpium .
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.
CARPOCANIIDAE Haeckel, 1882
|Suzuki, Noritoshi, Caulet, Jean-Pierre & Dumitrica, Paulian 2021|
|Sanfilippo & Riedel 1992|
|Haeckel 1887: 1276|
|Haeckel 1882: 427|
|Ehrenberg 1846: 385|
|Riedel & Sanfilippo, 1971: 1596: 1596|