Glaresis, Erichson, 1848

Gordon, Robert D. & Hanley, Guy A., 2014, Systematic revision of American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea), Insecta Mundi 2014 (333), pp. 1-91: 30-31

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Glaresis  - Mendica Group

Description. Size small, length 2.7 to 3.5 mm. Clypeal apex straight or curved, not or weakly reflexed, tuberculate ( Fig. 19BView Figures 19). Pronotal fovea deep, distinct ( Fig. 27CView Figures 27). Elytral striae strongly convex, strongly carinate (except G. california  , G. howdeni  , texana  , and confusa  ) ( Fig. 25CView Figures 25). Metatasternal surface with ridges strong, raised behind mesocoxae, forming a supporting structure; metasternal groove distinct, shallow or deep. Mesotibial apex noticeably produced, apically rounded except large, long, apically acute in G. confusa  and subgroup C, posterolateral emargination of mesotibia with 3 or 4 short, widely spaced spines ( Fig. 19DView Figures 19). Posterior margin of metatrochanter unarmed, or serrate with series of tubercles, or with some small tubercles. Lateral metatibial, posteromedian projection, or series of small teeth. Apex of 5th abdominal ventrite emarginate in some species, smoothly rounded in others, sexually dimorphic in some but not others.

Three subgroups can be defined, subgroup C is thus far known from Mexico south to Costa Rica, and defined by the metatibial apex strongly projecting, apically acute (as in G. phoenicis  ), metatibia narrow basally, abruptly widened before apex, strongly microreticulate ventral surface, and modified apex of female 5th abdominal ventrite. Species in this group are; G. costaricensis  , G. dentata  , G. donaldi  , G. limbata  , and G. zacateca  .

The other two subgroups have the mesotibal apex not strongly projecting, apically rounded (except G. confusa  , G. falli  and G. texana  with apex as in Group C), metatibia wide, evenly widened from base to apex, ventral surface not strongly microreticulate, and apex of female 5th abdominal ventrite unmodified. They are known from northern Mexico, Baja California, Canada and United States, and distin- guished from each other by type of metasternal groove which is weakly impressed with tapered sides in subgroup A., containing G. texana  , G. howdeni  , G. california  , G. confusa  , and G. falli  , and deeply, distinctly impressed with sides abruptly defined in subgroup B which contains G. australis  , G. gordoni  , G. caenulenta  , G. mendica  , G. paramendica  , and G. tumida  .

Remarks. This group contains 16 small, roughly sculptured species, many of which are found in habitats atypical of other groups and species of Glaresis  . Some such as G. confusa  are often attracted to light in areas with no known sand deposits, although often in arid regions. Metasternal ridges in this group are strongly raised behind the mesocoxal bases, seeming to form a supporting structure.