Bungona (Chopralla) bifida Shi & Tong,

Shi, Weifang & Tong, Xiaoli, 2019, Genus Bungona Harker, 1957 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from China, with descriptions of three new species and a key to Oriental species, Zootaxa 4586 (3), pp. 571-585: 578-581

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Bungona (Chopralla) bifida Shi & Tong

sp. nov.

Bungona (Chopralla) bifida Shi & Tong  , sp. nov.

( Figs 32–46View FIGURES 32–40View FIGURES 41–46, 49View FIGURES 47–49)

Material examined. Holotype.GoogleMaps  1 mature nymph in ethanol, CHINA, Sichuan, Huagaoxi National Nature Reserve, Xuyong County, Shuiwei Town   GoogleMaps (24.20°N, 110.29°E, alt. 770m), 3.iv.2012, coll. Weifang Shi.

Paratypes (deposited in ethanol unless otherwise stated). 2 nymphs on slides and 4 nymphs, same date as holotype. CHINA, Guizhou: 1 nymph on mounted slides and 5 nymphs, Suiyang County, Kuankuoshui National Nature Reserve, Maoya Town , Zhongping (28.20°N, 107.04°E, alt. 640m), 26.iii.2012, coll. Weifang Shi.GoogleMaps  Hubei: 1 nymph, Yingshan County, Taohuachong Scenic (30.99°N, 116.04°E, alt. 600m), 24.vi.2014, coll. Weifang Shi.GoogleMaps  Sichuan: 1 nymph, Pingwu County, Laohegou (32.47°N, 104.67°E, alt. 1480m), 25.v.2012, coll. Weifang Shi.GoogleMaps 

Description. Mature nymph. Body length: 4.5–6mm, cerci 2.5–3mm, filament slightly shorter than cerci.

Colouration. Body with contrasting colour pattern ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 41–46) which fit well with the typical of the subgenus Chopralla  .

Head. Antennae yellow-brown, approximately 1.8 x head width; pedicel slightly longer than scape ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 32–40). Labrum rectangular, width approximately 1.7 x length, anteromedial notch deeply with one small rounded lobe at base; each side of dorsal surface with one medial seta and one row of 3–4 submarginal setae sublaterally, which are all bifurcated at middle or 2/3 from base ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 32–40); ventrally bordered with feathered setae along margin and one disto-medial arc of very fine setae. Left mandible ( Fig. 34View FIGURES 32–40): incisors with 6 fused denticles, prostheca robust with 3 blunt and 3 acute denticles; spine-like setae between incisor base and molar present. Right mandible ( Fig. 35View FIGURES 32–40): incisors partially fused, inner and outer incisors with 6–7 denticles respectively, prostheca close to incisors and with slender medial process, neither bifid nor plumose but with small denticles apically; margin between incisors base and molar scattered with one tuft of spine-like setae. Hypopharynx: lingua with one median projection, covered with abundant setae. Maxillae ( Fig. 33View FIGURES 32–40): galealacinia with one row of 3–5 long basal setae and one short spine-like hump seta basally; maxillary palpus 2-segmented, slightly shorter than galealacinia and scattered with fine setae on surface, segment II approximately 2 x length of segment I. Labium ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 32–40): glossae slightly longer than paraglossae and subequal to paraglossae in width, ventrally with one row of 15–17 acute, long setae along inner margin and 3 stout setae and 1 robust setae at apex, dorsally with 5–6 acute, long setae along outer margin; paraglossae ventrally with one row of 17–19 acute, stout setae along outer margin and 5–7 long, stout setae along inner margin; labial palpus 3-segmented,segment I about 0.8 x length of segment II and III combined, scattered with numerous fine setae ventrally and pores dorsally; segment II wider than segment III, dorsally with one row of 4 long, simple setae apicomedially; segment III about 1.3 x maximum width.

Thorax. Pronotum surface smooth without tubercles. Hindwing pads minute but visible. Leg surfaces scattered with trapezoidal scale bases. Femora approximately 4 x maximum width, dorsally with one row of about 5–7 long, robust setae which approximately 1/2 femoral width and one pair of close-set stout subapical setae ( Fig. 38View FIGURES 32–40), ventrally with numerous pores; tibiae dorsally with fine setae, ventrally with one row of slightly acute stout setae and one pair of long, stout, slightly feathered setae apically; patella-tibial suture absent on fore tibia ( Fig. 40View FIGURES 32–40) and present on mid- and hind tibia submedially; tarsi dorsally with fine setae, ventrally with a row of short, acute setae. Claw with two rows of 3–4 denticles ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 41–46), apically with 4–5 furrows; two subapical setae present laterally but vestigial.

Abdomen ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 41–46): Abdominal tergal surface covered with trapezoidal scale bases and lanceolate scales densely ( Figs 42–44View FIGURES 41–46). Posterior margin of tergites II–VIII with semicircular, blunt spines which successively increasing in length backwards ( Figs 42–43View FIGURES 41–46); posterior marginal spines on tergites IX–X with wide gap medially ( Fig. 44View FIGURES 41–46); sternites generally yellowish-white, sternal surface with numerous pores and scale bases; sternites III–VI each with one pair of setal tufts anterolaterally ( Fig. 45View FIGURES 41–46); posterior margins of sternites V–IX with triangular spines; paraproct ( Fig. 49View FIGURES 47–49) subtriangular, with pores, trapezoidal scales bases and fine hairs on surface and 8–9 pointed spines along inner margin. Gills present on tergites I–VII, asymmetric lanceolate, moderately tracheated ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 41–46). Median caudal filament slightly shorter than cerci, inner margin and both sides of median caudal filament fringed with well-developed swimming bristles.

Imagoes. Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet bifida  is from Latin adjective “bifidus”, meaning “cleft, divided into two parts” and referring to the shape of submarginal setae on labrum.

Distribution and biology. China (Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou). The nymphs usually inhabit in slow-flowing mountain streams.

Comments. This new species, along with Bungona (C.) liebenauae ( Soldán, Braasch & Muu, 1987)  , Bungona (C.) pontica Sroka, Godunko & Gattolliat, 2019  and Genus No. 2 sp. 1, sensu Müller-Liebenau, 1984, presents a very unique characteristic: right prostheca robust rather than bifid and plumose, which suggest that these four species may have an isolated position within the subgenus ( Soldán et al. 1987; Marle et al. 2016; Sroka et al. 2019). Bungona (C.) bifida  sp. nov. is closely related to Bungona (C.) pontica  from Turkey, but it can be easily distinguished from the latter by the following combination of features: (1) body colour pattern; (2) submarginal setae on labrum are forked apically ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 32–40) (vs. simple in pontica  ); (3) segment I of labial palpus about 0.8 x length of segment II and III combined, segment III about 1.3 x maximum width (vs. segment I slightly longer than II and III combined, length of segment III subequal to the width in pontica  ). The new species is similar to B. (C.) liebenauae  in body colour pattern, while the pronotum of new species has no paired median tubercles. This new species is also similar to the ‘Genus No. 2 sp. 1’ described and illustrated by Müller-Liebenau (1984) from West Malaysia, however, body colour pattern, bifurcated submarginal setae on labrum, segment II of labial palpus dorsally with a row of 4 long, acute setae apicomedially and paraproct with 8–9 spines along the inner margin, clearly indicate that B. (C.) bifida  sp. nov. is not conspecific with the Genus No. 2 sp. 1, sensu Müller-Liebenau, 1984.