Alevonota (Alevonota) rufotestacea ( KRAATZ , 1856)Alevonota (Alevonota) elegantula ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE, 1863)

Wunderle, Volker Assing Paul, 2008, On the Alevonota species of the Western Palaearctic region (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Athetini), Beiträge Zur Entomologie = Contributions to Entomology 58 (5), pp. 145-189: 148-156

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.21248/contrib.entomol.58.1.145-189

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4794088

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A50879-E853-FFD1-0DDE-FBDEDE76136E

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Alevonota (Alevonota) rufotestacea ( KRAATZ , 1856) Alevonota (Alevonota) elegantula ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE, 1863)
status

 

Alevonota (Alevonota) rufotestacea ( KRAATZ, 1856)   ( Figs 1-19 View Figs 1-9 View Figs 10-18 View Fig , Map 1 View Map 1 )

Homalota rufotestacea KRAATZ, 1856: 245   f.

Homalota atricapilla MULSANT & REY, 1852: 21   .

Aleuonota aurantiaca FAUVEL, 1895: 95   ; syn. n.

Type material examined:

H. rufotestacea   : Lectotype , here designated: " Syntypus / coll. Kraatz / atricapilla Muls. German.   / testacea Kr. / Lectotypus  Homalota rufotestacea Kraatz   desig. V. Assing 2007 / Alevonota rufotestacea (Kraatz)   det. V. Assing 2007 " ( DEI). Paralectotype  [without head]: "Bonn / coll. Kraatz / Syntypus / Alevonota elegantula (Brisout)   det. V. Assing 2007 " ( DEI).

A. aurantiaca   : Lectotype , here designated: "Fresney le Puceux / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479 / Lectotypus  Aleuonota aurantiaca Fauvel   desig. V. Assing 2007 / Alevonota rufotestacea (Kraatz)   det. V. Assing 2007 " ( IRSNB). Paralectotypes: 1 : " Croatie / =rufotestacea of my coll. / aurantiaca Fvl.   / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 ex.: " Croatie / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 : "Guildford, Surrey, G. C. C. / rufotestacea / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 : "[locality illegible] / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 : "Limoges, 4 / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 ex.: "Ozieri, Sardaigne / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 ex.: " Corse / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 : "Miskoutine / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB); 1 : "Apennins d'Ombrie, feuilles mortes / Coll. et Det. Fauvel, Ath. (Aleuonota) aurantiaca Fvl., R. I. Sc. N. B.   17.479" ( IRSNB).

Comments:

The original description of H. rufotestacea   is based on an unspecified, but apparently low number ("aeusserst selten") of syntypes collected "im mittleren und südlichen Deutschland " ( KRAATZ 1856). Two female syntypes were located in the Kraatz collection at the DEI; they are apparently not conspecific. One of them is in agreement with the present interpretation of A. rufotestacea   , the other, a specimen without head, probably refers to A. elegantula   . The former is here designated as the lectotype.

Evidently misinterpreting A. rufotestacea (KRAATZ)   , FAUVEL (1895) made the name Aleuonota aurantiaca   available as a "nom. nov." for the interpretation [sic] of A. rufotestacea   by "Rye, Sharp, Fowler (non Kr.)". Consequently, his referring the new name to descriptions provided by the three British authors represents an original description through indication. Since types are not specified, the specimens in the Fauvel collection identified by him as A. aurantiaca   are here considered syntypes. All of them are conspecific with A. rufotestacea (KRAATZ)   . A male from northwestern France is here designated as the lectotype.

Additional material examined:

Tunisia: 1 ex., Le Kef, leg. Normand ( ZMH)   ; 1 ex., Le Kef ( ZMH)   ; 1 ex., " Tunis ", leg. Sahlberg ( ZMH)   ; 1 ex., " Tunesien ", leg. Reitter ( DEI)   .

Algeria: 1 , Djurdjura , Col de Tizi-N'Kouilal, 1700-1800 m, 7.V.1988, leg. Besuchet, Löbl & Burckhardt ( MHNG)   .

France: Languedoc-Roussillon: 1 ex., Gard, Monoblet, hazelnut litter, 22.X.1982, leg. Löbl ( MHNG)   .

Spain: Mallorca: 9 exs., Son Carrió, swept from water surface of swimming pool, 28.II.2003, leg. Feldmann (cFel, cAss)   ; 3 exs., same data, but IV.2000 (cFel, cAss); 1  [identification uncertain], Valdemossa, leg. Breit ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., locality not specified, leg. Breit ( NHMW)   .

Switzerland: Genève: 1 ex. [teneral], Vernier , 15.XI.1961, leg. Comellini ( MHNG)   ; 1 ex., Vandoeuvres , 16.V.1962, leg. Comellini ( MHNG)   ; 1 ex., Bois de la Grille , 26.IV.1962, leg. Comellini ( MHNG)   ; 1 ex., Versoix , 20.IV.1988, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG)   ; 1 ex., Chancy env., Racleret , flood plain forest, sifted, 22.V.2004, leg. Schülke (Sch)   . Ticino: 1 ex., Mte. Generoso [45°55'N, 09°01'E], 1700 m, moss, 9.VI.1962, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Novaggio , "avec Formica rufa   ", 10.IX.1965, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG)   ; 2 exs., Malcantone Bedigliora, M. dei Mondini , 600 m, pitfall, 28.VI.1993, leg. Monga (cZan)   . Valais: 1 ex., Eich / Visp , 1000 m, sifted, 12.IX.1984, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG)   .

Italy: Trentino-Alto Adige: 1 ex., Vallarsa [ca. 45°49'N, 11°05'E], leg. v. Friedl ( NMP) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Terragnolo [ca. 45°53'N, 11°09'E], leg. Jureček ( NMP) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Folgaria [45°54'N, 11°10'E], leg. Jureček ( NMP) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Lago di Ledro [ca. 45°53'N, 10°44'E], leg. Strupi ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   . Piemonte: 1 ex., Terme di Valdieri [44°12'N, 7°16'E] GoogleMaps   Veneto: 1 ex., Bosco del Cansiglio [ca. 46°07'N, 12°28'E], 17.VII.1912 ( DEI) GoogleMaps   ; 2 exs., Cansiglio, Val Seraie ( BL)   , 5.VII.1956, leg. Bucciarelli ( NHMW, cAss)   ; 1 ex., Colli Euganei [ca. 45°19'N, 11°40'E] ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   . Friuli-Venezia Giulia: 1 ex., Fiume Veneto env., leg. Meyer ( NHMW)   ; 2 exs., Trieste, Opcina- Basovizza [45°39'N, 13°52'E], 21.-28.IV.1921, leg. Moczarski & Scheerpeltz ( NHMW, cAss). Emilia- GoogleMaps   Romagna: 1 ex., Modena, Montegibbio [ca. 44°30'N, 10°47'E], 11.V.1893 ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Montegibbio , 1.V.1893, leg. Fiori ( MNHUB)   ; 1 ex., Modena , 5.V.1894, leg. Fiori ( MNHUB)   ; 1 ex., Santa Maria [ca. 43°55'N, 12°34'E], 10.IV.1897, leg. Fiori ( MNHUB) GoogleMaps   . Toscana: 1 ex., Alpi Apuane , leg. Paganetti ( DEI)   .

Lazio: 1 ex., Roma, Roviano , 28.V.1978, leg. Audisio (cZan)   . Puglia: 1 ex.   , Puglia, Monte Gargano , 25.V.1907, leg. Hilf ( DEI)   . Calabria: 1 ex., Antonimina ( RC), 800 m, mixed forest, 3.V.1003, leg. Angelini & Sabella (cWun)   . Sardegna: 2 exs., Seui, Mte. Arquieri , 7.V.1902, leg. Dodero ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Mte. Aqueri ( NHMW)   ; 4 exs., Aritzo, Mte. Gennargentu, leg. Krüger ( DEI, NHMW, cAss)   ; 1 ex., Aritzo ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., locality not specified ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Dorgali , 7.III.1979, leg. Curti ( MHNG)   .

Germany: Schleswig-Holstein: 1 ex., Eutin, Beutiner Holz , 12.V.1916 ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., same locality, 24.V.1917 ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., same locality, 16.V.1918 ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., same locality, 16.VI.1909 ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., same locality, 13.V.1920 ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., same locality, 27.V.1908 ( DEI)   . Nordrhein-Westfalen: 1 ex., Düren, Gürzenich- Schevenhütte , car-net, 16.V.1989, leg. Wunderle (cWun)   ; 1 ex., Bielefeld, Teutoburger Wald , 30.VI.1987, leg. Renner (cRen)   ; 1 ex. [teneral, nanistic], Höxter , mesobrometum, pitfall, VII.1989 (cAss)   ; 1 ex., Höxter env., Beverungen , pitfall, V.1990 (cAss)   ; 1 ex., Marsberg [51°27'N, 08°51'E], Dahlberg , mesobrometum, pitfall, 5.VII.1992, leg. Lückmann (cFel) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., same data, but 21.V.1994 (cFel) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Marsberg, Kregenberg , mesobromentum, pitfall, 21.V.1994, leg. Lückmann (cFel)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 14.V.1995 (cFel)   . Rheinland-Pfalz: 4 exs., Eifel, Fischbachtal, Neuerburg [49°59'N, 06°57'E], car-net, 1.VI.1990, leg. Wunderle (cWun) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Nahetal, Heinzenberg, Kellenbachtal , car-net, 27.V.1986, leg. Wunderle (cWun)   ; 1 ex., Nassau , leg. Buddeberg ( NHMW)   . Bayern: 1 ex., Eschenlohe , 22.VI.1925, leg. Ihsssen ( MNHUB)   .

Hessen: 1 ex., Dautphe-Buchenau, Katzenbachtal , car-net, 30.IV.1988, leg. Wunderle (cWun)   ; 2 exs., same data, but 9.V.1987 (cWun)   ; 1 ex., Oberlais ( DEI)   . Niedersachsen: 1 ex., SE Göttingen, Westerberg [ca. 51°30'N, 9°59'E], 2.VI.1992, leg. Borcherding (cAss) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Göttingen, Niedernjesa , 15.V.1973, leg. Renner (cRen)   ; 1 ex., Northeim env., Weper , mesobrometum, pitfall, VI.1990, leg. Joger (cAss)   ; 2 exs., 2 km SE Wolfenbüttel, Öselberg , 150 m, pitfall, V.1998, leg. Schmidt (cAss)   ; 1 ex., same data, but IV.1998 (cAss)   ; 1 ex., Alfeld / Leine, Wrisbergholzen , Ortsberg , mesobrometum, pitfall, V.1986, leg. Assing (cAss)   ; 1 ex., same locality, 8.VI.1992, leg. Sprick (cAss)   ; 1 ex., Alfeld / Leine, Siebenberge , Ostenberg , V.2000, leg. Sührig (cAss)   ; 2 exs., S Hildesheim, Steinberg , mesobrometum, pitfall, V.1997, leg. Schmidt (cAss)   ; 1 ex., same data, but VI.1997 (cAss)   . Sachsen-Anhalt: 1 ex., Bad Kösen, Himmelreich [ca. 51°06'N, 11°42'E], 20.V.1929, leg. Maertens ( MNHUB) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., same locality, 30.IV.1950, leg. Dorn ( MNHUB) GoogleMaps   . Thüringen: 1 ex., Kyffhäuser , "Drei Linden", 9.V.1915, leg. Petry ( MNHUB)   ; 1 ex., Sachsenburg , 22.V.1915, leg. Petry ( MNHUB)   ; 1 ex., Rüdigsdorf , 26.V.1928, leg. Petry ( MNHUB)   . Sachsen: 1 ex., Görlitz, Landeskrone , pitfall, 16.V.1978, leg. Vogel (cZan)   ; 1 ex., Moritzburg ( MNHUB)   .

Poland: 1 ex., Legnica ["Liegnitz"] ( DEI)   .

Czech Republic: 1 ex., Moravia, Brno-Hády , 1.V.1966, leg. Nohel ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Bohemia, locality not specified ( NHMW)   .

Slovakia: 1 ex., NE Nitria, Jelenec, mixed deciduous forest, leaf litter sifted, 30.V.1983, leg. Dieckmann (cAss)   .

Austria: Oberösterreich: 1 ex., Steyr ( NHMW)   . Niederösterreich / Wien: 1 ex., Schönbühel , VI.1918, leg. Käufel ( NHMW)   ; 2 exs., Perchtoldsdorf, Heide , leg. Scheerpeltz ( NHMW)   ; 2 exs., SW Wien, Dornbach ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex. [with worker of Lasius fuliginosus   attached to the pin], Wien env., Mariabrunn, 9.V.1967, leg. Holzschuh ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Wechselgebirge ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Wechselgebirge , 1888, leg. Ganglbauer ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., S Wiener Neustadt, Bucklige Welt, leg. Mader ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Kranichberg [47°38'N; 15°58'E], leg. Ganglbauer ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   ; 2 exs., locality not specified, leg. Haberfelner ( NHMW)   . Steiermark: 1 ex., Turnau ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Graz env. ( NHMW)   ; 3 exs., Rottenmanner Tauern ( NHMW)   . Kärnten: 1 ex., Karnische Alpen, Doberbachtal [ca. 46°35'N, 13°15'E], leg. Strupi ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., "Carinthia" ( NHMW)   . Locality not specified   : 1 ex., " Oestreich [sic]" ( DEI)   .

Slovenia: 2 ex., "Wochein", leg. Moczarski ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Postojna, Trakova dolina, 23.VIII.1958, leg. Mandl ( NHMW)   .

Croatia: 1 ex., N Rovinj, Canal di Leme , 21.-28.IV.1921, leg. Moczarski & Scheerpeltz ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Plitvica ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Plitvica , leg. Strupi (cZan)   ; 1 ex., Otočac ( ZMH)   ; 1 ex., Mljet island , leg. Moczarski ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Split road to Malaćka, 4.5 NW Kaštela, 300 m, 5.VI.2006, leg. Schuh (cAss)   ; 1 ex., locality not specified ( NHMW)   .

Romania: 3 exs., Baile Herculane, leg. Breit, Ganglbauer, Hilf ( DEI, NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Cocos Monastry near Niculitel [approx. 45°09'N, 28°27'E], leg. Breit ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Mehadia, leg. v. Bodemeyer ( NHMW)   .

Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1 ex., Kraljevska Sutjesca [44°07'N, 18°12'E], 300-600 m, car-net, 15.V.1990, leg. Wunderle (cWun) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Bjelasnica planina, leg. Leonhard ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Bjelasnica planina, peak region ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., locality illegible, 1000 m, 26.VI.1891, leg. Leonhard ( DEI)   .

Yugoslavia: 1 ex., E-Serbia, Rtanj planina, leg. Breit ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Tara planina, S Perućac, 500 m, 22.V.1984, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG)   .

Montenegro: 1 ex., Col Crkvine , 1000 m, 22.V.1984, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG)   .

Bulgaria: 1 ex., Ali Botusch , near Goleshovo, 41°24'N, 23°35'E, 1015 m, beech forest, 15.VI.1997, leg. Behne ( DEI) GoogleMaps   .

Greece: mainland: 1 ex., Ipiros, 11 km S Konitsa , 400-450 m, 30.IV.1973, leg. Löbl ( MHNG)   ; 1 ex., Thessalia, Larissa, Oros Ossa, above Stomio , 39°51'N, 22°24'E, 500 m, mixed deciduous forest, 5.IV.2001, leg. Zerche & Behne ( DEI) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., Thessalia, Larissa, Oros Ossa, above Stomio , 39°51'N, 22°43'E, 700 m, oak and fir forest, 5.IV.2001, leg. Zerche & Behne (cAss). Zakinthos GoogleMaps   : 1 ex., Katastarion , 23.IV.1971, leg. Hauser (cB). Corfu   : 1 ex., Val di Ropa , 1905, leg. Leonhard ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Mathias , leg. Winkler ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., locality not specified, leg. Winkler ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., locality illegible ( DEI)   .

Turkey: Istanbul: 2 exs., Istanbut-Sile, Taşdelen forest , 28.V.1967, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG, cAss)   .

Zonguldak: 1 ex., 17 km N Safranbolu , 1000 m, 16.V.1976, leg. Besuchet & Löbl ( MHNG)   . Sinop: 1 ex., Çangal Dağı, 7.–15.VI.1960, leg. Schubert ( NHMW); 2 exs., Çangal Dağı , 16.-26.V.1957, leg. Schubert ( NHMW, cAss)   . Antalya: 1 ex.   , Antalya env., Termessos , 36°59'N, 30°28'E, 700-850 m, 21.IV.2001, leg. Brachat & Meybohm (cAss) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ex., valley SE Termessos , 36°57'N, 30°29'E, 300 m, 22.IV.2001, leg. Brachat & Meybohm (cAss) GoogleMaps   . Isparta: 1 ex., Eğridir-Çandır , 950 m, 6.V.1975, leg. Besuchet & Löbl ( MHNG)   .

Konya: 1 ex., Beyşehir env., Yeşildağ, swept from vegetation, 14.V.2000, leg. Brachat & Meybohm (cAss)   .

Mersin: 1 ex., Anamur env., 10 m, swept from vegetation, 16.V.2000, leg. Brachat & Meybohm (cAss)   .

Kahramanmaraş: 1 , ca. 35 km SW Kahramanmaraş, Doluca, 37°22'N, 36°40'E, 1280 m, 27.IV.2004, leg. Brachat & Meybohm (cAss). Antakya : GoogleMaps   2 exs., NW Teknepinar, Kızıldağ, 36°11'N, 35°59'E, 28.IV.2002, leg. Brachat & Meybohm (cAss); GoogleMaps   1 ex., 22 km S Antakya, S Şenköy, 36°01'N, 36°07'E, 940 m, oak, beech, and laurel shrubs, sifted, 2.IV.2004, leg. Schülke (cSch) GoogleMaps   .

Israel: 1 ex., Galilee , Mt. Meron, 900 m, 21.IV.1982, leg. Besuchet & Löbl ( MHNG)   ; 1 ex., coast, Mt. Carmel , 500 m, 17.IV.1982, leg. Besuchet & Löbl ( MHNG)   .

Locality not specified or illegible: 7 exs. ( DEI, NHMW)   ; 3 exs., "Sondlig" [?] ( MNHUB)   ; 1 ex., "Carvini" [?] ( MNHUB)   .

Redescription:

3.1-4.2 mm (abdomen fully extended); RL: 1.2-1.7 mm. Coloration variabel; usual coloration: head dark brown to blackish; pronotum reddish to reddish brown; elytra yellowish to reddish yellow; abdomen reddish, with most of tergite VI, the anterior half of tergite VII, and sometimes also the middle of tergites III-V infuscate; legs yellowish; antennae rufous.

Head approximately as wide as long (HW/HL: usually 0.93-1.02; exceptionally up to 1.08); microsculpture pronounced and composed of isodiametric meshes; puncturation variable, very fine and barely noticeable to moderately coarse and distinct ( Fig. 1 View Figs 1-9 ). Eyes of moderate size ( Fig. 2 View Figs 1-9 ) and usually weakly projecting from lateral contours of head, slightly shorter than postocular region in dorsal view; EyL/PoL: 0.50-0.68. Postgenal carina fine and short, visible only posteriorly in lateral view. Antenna distinctly incrassate apically; antennomere III distinctly shorter than II, coniform, approximately 1.5 times as long as wide; IV-X of gradually increasing width and strongly transverse, approximately 3 times as wide as long ( Fig. 1 View Figs 1-9 ).

Pronotum usually weakly transverse (PW/PL: 1.00-1.10); microsculpture similar to that of head ( Fig. 1 View Figs 1-9 ); puncturation similar to - and as variable as - that of head; along midline with or without very fine furrow; pubescence in midline directed caucad, occasionally cephalad in anterior 1/6-1/4.

Elytra usually approximately as long as pronotum ( Fig. 1 View Figs 1-9 ), more rarely somewhat shorter (EL/PL: 0.78-1.04); puncturation very fine; microsculpture present, but much shallower than that of head and pronotum. Hind wings apparently fully developed.

Abdomen subparallel; tergite IV without anterior impression; puncturation extremely fine and very sparse; microsculpture present everywhere, but shallow, composed of transverse meshes on anterior tergites and of isodiametric meshes on tergite VII; posterior margin of tergite VII with palisade fringe; posterior margin of tergite VIII distinctly convex in both sexes; tergites VII and VIII without apparent sexual dimorphism.

: tergite VIII and sternite VIII as in Figs 3-4 View Figs 1-9 ; median lobe of aedeagus rather small, ML: 0.30-0.35 mm; ventral process weakly curved in lateral view and not conspicuously acute apically ( Figs 10-18 View Figs 10-18 ).

: spermatheca as in Figs 5-9 View Figs 1-9 .

Intraspecific variation:

Coloration and virtually all morphological characters, especially size, puncturation, and the shape of the pronotum are subject to considerable intraspecific variation. Specimens seen from Turkey and Israel are on average smaller and more slender (especially the pronotum), and their aedeagus

is on average slightly smaller, but of similar shape. For illustrations of the variation of the primary sexual characters see Figs 5-18 View Figs 1-9 View Figs 10-18 .

Distribution and bionomics:

Based on the revised material, the A. rufotestacea   is widespread in the south of the Western Palaearctic region, its distribution including North Africa ( Algeria, Tunisia), the Baleares, France, England, Central Europe, Italy, southeastern Europe, and the eastern Mediterranean ( Turkey, Israel) ( Map 1 View Map 1 ). Since the species was previously confounded with A. elegantula   , all literature records require confirmation. This also applies to records from Scandinavia ( Denmark, Sweden, Norway) (see e. g. LUNDBERG 1995; SÖRENSSON 1981). There is little doubt that records from Hungary (e. g. ÁDÁM 1996) refer to this species. The recent record from Lesbos ( ASSING 2005) refers to A. libanotica   .

The species has been collected in a wide range of forested (mixed forests) and unforested habitats, especially grassland, from near sea-level to 1800 m, with pitfall traps, car-nets, sweep-nets, and by sifting leaf litter; it has also been found in moss and in nests of ants ( Lasius fuliginosus   , Formica   " rufa   "). In northern Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Niedersachsen), it is almost exclusively confined to unforested xerothermous biotopes (calcareous grasslands). The true reproduction habitat is unknown and probably cryptic, as can be inferred from the fact that, with very few exceptions, only single specimens have been collected during the dispersal period.

The vast majority of specimens were recorded during the period from April through June, in the Mediterranean on average slightly earlier (April-May) than in Central Europe (May-June). Almost all the records of flying specimens or of specimens evidently preparing for flight (car-net, sweep-net) are in this period. However, on one occasion, flying specimens were also observed in February (Mallorca; 9 specimens). Teneral adults have been collected in July and November ( Fig. 19 View Fig ).

Alevonota (Alevonota) elegantula ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE, 1863)   , revalidated ( Figs 20-29 View Figs 20-29 , Map 2 View Map 2 )

Homalota elegantula BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE 1863: 23   f.

Type material examined:

Syntype : " S. Germain / elegantula" ( MNHNP)   .

Comments:

The original description is based on an unspecified number of syntypes from "Forêt de Saint- Germain" ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE 1863). The name remained valid until FAUVEL (1895, 1897, 1902) placed both A. elegantula   and A. rufotestacea   in the synonymy of A. atricapilla ( MULSANT & REY, 1852)   , which was later discovered to represent a junior primary homonym. REITTER (1909) and BERNHAUER & SCHEERPELTZ (1926) synonymised both A. atricapilla   and A. elegantula   with A. rufotestacea   ; this synonymy has remained unquestioned ever since ( SMETANA 2004). The present revision of the type and additional material, however, revealed that A. elegantula   represents a distinct species, so that the name is here revalidated.

Additional material examined:

Spain: Aragón: 1 ex., 20 km SE Teruel, La Puebla de Valverde , 40°13'N, 00°57'W, 1100 m, sifted, 14.IV.2003, leg. Assing (cAss) GoogleMaps   . Valencia: 1 ex., Alicante, Sierra d'Aitana, NW Sella , Port de Tudons , 38°39'N, 00°20'W, 1030 m, sifted, 28.III.2007, leg. Assing (cAss) GoogleMaps   . Andalucía: 1 ex., Córdoba, Posadas , 18.IV.1925 ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Granada , Puerto de la Ragna, 2000-2100 m, 14.V.1960, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG). Locality not specified   : 1 ex., " Castilien ", 9.IV.1887, leg. Korb ( NHMW)   .

France: Bretagne: 1 ex., Morlaix ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Morlaix, leg. Hervé ( NHMW)   . Île-de-France: 1 ex., Paris, leg. Fauvel ( NHMW)   .

Italy: Lazio: A , Lago di Bracciano, Monti Sabatini, Monte Guerrano , 500 m, 7.V.1998, leg. Wolf (cSch)   .

Germany: Nordrhein-Westfalen: 1 ex., Köln-Flittard , 15.V.1979, leg. Boness (cRen)   ; 7 exs., Hürth , car-net, 1.V.1989, leg. Köhler, Wunderle (cWun)   ; 14 exs., Köln env., Brühl, Staatsforst Ville , car-net, 3.V.1989, leg. Köhler (cKöh, cAss)   ; 2 exs., same data, but 24.IV.1989 (cKöh, cAss)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 2.V.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 18.V.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 11.VI.1989 (cKöh)   ; 2 exs., same data, but 14.VI.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 29.VI.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., Haustenbeck, Senne , 2.V.1995, leg. Renner (cRen)   . Hessen: 1 ex., Fulda, Blankenau , car-net, 1.V.1988, leg. Wunderle (cWun)   . Niedersachsen: 1 ex., Hannover, Eilenriede , car-net, 11.IV.1991, leg. Assing (cAss)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 29.V.1991 (cAss)   ; 1 ex., Nienburg, Lichtenmoor , car-net, 4.V.2006, leg. Lompe (cAss)   . Brandenburg: 1 ex., Spreewald, Burg [51°49'N, 14°09'E], window trap, 20.IV.-6.V.2000, leg. Pütz (cAss) GoogleMaps   .

Poland: 1 ex., Legnica ["Liegnitz"], leg. Letzner ( DEI)   .

Diagnosis:

For a colour image of the habitus see the photo of " A. rufotestacea   " in TRONQUET (2006). In external appearance similar to A. rufotestacea   , also rather variable, but distinguished as follows:

Size on average larger, 3.5-4.4 mm (abdomen extended); RL: 1.4-1.9 mm. Coloration on average darker; pronotum usually brown to dark brown; antennae often dark reddish to dark reddish brown; abdomen often almost completely dark.

Forebody as in Fig. 20 View Figs 20-29 . Head usually weakly transverse, HW/HL: 1.00-1.07; puncturation on average more distinct ( Fig. 21 View Figs 20-29 ). Eyes larger and more prominent, approximately as long as postocular region in dorsal view; EyL/PoL: 0.68-0.85 ( Fig. 22 View Figs 20-29 ).

Pronotum on average more transverse, PW/PL: 1.07-1.13; puncturation denser and usually distinct; midline with more pronounced furrow ( Fig. 21 View Figs 20-29 ).

Elytra usually slightly longer than pronotum, EL/PL: 1.00-1.08 ( Fig. 20 View Figs 20-29 ).

: median lobe of aedeagus larger, ML: 0.36-0.41 mm; ventral process more strongly curved and with more acute apex in lateral view ( Figs 25-27 View Figs 20-29 ).

: tergite VIII ( Fig. 23 View Figs 20-29 ), sternite VIII ( Fig. 24 View Figs 20-29 ), and spermatheca ( Figs 28-29 View Figs 20-29 ) of similar shape as in A. rufotestacea   .

Distribution and bionomics:

Alevonota elegantula   has become known from Spain, France, Germany, and Poland, suggesting an expansive Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution ( Map 2 View Map 2 ). The record from Lazio ( Italy) should be considered tentative, since it is based only on a female. The records of A. rufotestacea   from the Pyrenées-Orientales by TRONQUET (2006) apparently refer to A. elegantula   , as can be inferred from the photograph on plate 19.

Except for two sifted specimens from Spain, all the recently collected specimens were recorded on the wing with car-nets and a window-trap, almost exclusively in forests. The highest record is from 2000-2100 m. The reproduction habitat is unknown. All the known specimens were collected end of March (1 specimen /1 record), April (6/5), May (35/12), and June (4/3), evidently the dispersal period of this species.

Alevonota (Alevonota) elegantula ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE, 1863)   , revalidated ( Figs 20-29 View Figs 20-29 , Map 2 View Map 2 )

Homalota elegantula BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE 1863: 23   f.

Type material examined:

Syntype : " S. Germain / elegantula" ( MNHNP)   .

Comments:

The original description is based on an unspecified number of syntypes from "Forêt de Saint- Germain" ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE 1863). The name remained valid until FAUVEL (1895, 1897, 1902) placed both A. elegantula   and A. rufotestacea   in the synonymy of A. atricapilla ( MULSANT & REY, 1852)   , which was later discovered to represent a junior primary homonym. REITTER (1909) and BERNHAUER & SCHEERPELTZ (1926) synonymised both A. atricapilla   and A. elegantula   with A. rufotestacea   ; this synonymy has remained unquestioned ever since ( SMETANA 2004). The present revision of the type and additional material, however, revealed that A. elegantula   represents a distinct species, so that the name is here revalidated.

Additional material examined:

Spain: Aragón: 1 ex., 20 km SE Teruel, La Puebla de Valverde , 40°13'N, 00°57'W, 1100 m, sifted, 14.IV.2003, leg. Assing (cAss) GoogleMaps   . Valencia: 1 ex., Alicante, Sierra d'Aitana, NW Sella , Port de Tudons , 38°39'N, 00°20'W, 1030 m, sifted, 28.III.2007, leg. Assing (cAss) GoogleMaps   . Andalucía: 1 ex., Córdoba, Posadas , 18.IV.1925 ( NHMW)   ; 1 ex., Granada , Puerto de la Ragna, 2000-2100 m, 14.V.1960, leg. Besuchet ( MHNG). Locality not specified   : 1 ex., " Castilien ", 9.IV.1887, leg. Korb ( NHMW)   .

France: Bretagne: 1 ex., Morlaix ( DEI)   ; 1 ex., Morlaix, leg. Hervé ( NHMW)   . Île-de-France: 1 ex., Paris, leg. Fauvel ( NHMW)   .

Italy: Lazio: A , Lago di Bracciano, Monti Sabatini, Monte Guerrano , 500 m, 7.V.1998, leg. Wolf (cSch)   .

Germany: Nordrhein-Westfalen: 1 ex., Köln-Flittard , 15.V.1979, leg. Boness (cRen)   ; 7 exs., Hürth , car-net, 1.V.1989, leg. Köhler, Wunderle (cWun)   ; 14 exs., Köln env., Brühl, Staatsforst Ville , car-net, 3.V.1989, leg. Köhler (cKöh, cAss)   ; 2 exs., same data, but 24.IV.1989 (cKöh, cAss)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 2.V.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 18.V.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 11.VI.1989 (cKöh)   ; 2 exs., same data, but 14.VI.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 29.VI.1989 (cKöh)   ; 1 ex., Haustenbeck, Senne , 2.V.1995, leg. Renner (cRen)   . Hessen: 1 ex., Fulda, Blankenau , car-net, 1.V.1988, leg. Wunderle (cWun)   . Niedersachsen: 1 ex., Hannover, Eilenriede , car-net, 11.IV.1991, leg. Assing (cAss)   ; 1 ex., same data, but 29.V.1991 (cAss)   ; 1 ex., Nienburg, Lichtenmoor , car-net, 4.V.2006, leg. Lompe (cAss)   . Brandenburg: 1 ex., Spreewald, Burg [51°49'N, 14°09'E], window trap, 20.IV.-6.V.2000, leg. Pütz (cAss) GoogleMaps   .

Poland: 1 ex., Legnica ["Liegnitz"], leg. Letzner ( DEI)   .

Diagnosis:

For a colour image of the habitus see the photo of " A. rufotestacea   " in TRONQUET (2006). In external appearance similar to A. rufotestacea   , also rather variable, but distinguished as follows:

Size on average larger, 3.5-4.4 mm (abdomen extended); RL: 1.4-1.9 mm. Coloration on average darker; pronotum usually brown to dark brown; antennae often dark reddish to dark reddish brown; abdomen often almost completely dark.

Forebody as in Fig. 20 View Figs 20-29 . Head usually weakly transverse, HW/HL: 1.00-1.07; puncturation on average more distinct ( Fig. 21 View Figs 20-29 ). Eyes larger and more prominent, approximately as long as postocular region in dorsal view; EyL/PoL: 0.68-0.85 ( Fig. 22 View Figs 20-29 ).

Pronotum on average more transverse, PW/PL: 1.07-1.13; puncturation denser and usually distinct; midline with more pronounced furrow ( Fig. 21 View Figs 20-29 ).

Elytra usually slightly longer than pronotum, EL/PL: 1.00-1.08 ( Fig. 20 View Figs 20-29 ).

: median lobe of aedeagus larger, ML: 0.36-0.41 mm; ventral process more strongly curved and with more acute apex in lateral view ( Figs 25-27 View Figs 20-29 ).

: tergite VIII ( Fig. 23 View Figs 20-29 ), sternite VIII ( Fig. 24 View Figs 20-29 ), and spermatheca ( Figs 28-29 View Figs 20-29 ) of similar shape as in A. rufotestacea   .

Distribution and bionomics:

Alevonota elegantula   has become known from Spain, France, Germany, and Poland, suggesting an expansive Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution ( Map 2 View Map 2 ). The record from Lazio ( Italy) should be considered tentative, since it is based only on a female. The records of A. rufotestacea   from the Pyrenées-Orientales by TRONQUET (2006) apparently refer to A. elegantula   , as can be inferred from the photograph on plate 19.

Except for two sifted specimens from Spain, all the recently collected specimens were recorded on the wing with car-nets and a window-trap, almost exclusively in forests. The highest record is from 2000-2100 m. The reproduction habitat is unknown. All the known specimens were collected end of March (1 specimen /1 record), April (6/5), May (35/12), and June (4/3), evidently the dispersal period of this species.

DEI

Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut

IRSNB

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

NMP

National Museum (Prague)

MNHNP

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Staphylinidae

Genus

Alevonota

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Staphylinidae

Genus

Alevonota

Loc

Alevonota (Alevonota) rufotestacea ( KRAATZ , 1856) Alevonota (Alevonota) elegantula ( BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE, 1863)

Wunderle, Volker Assing Paul 2008
2008
Loc

Aleuonota aurantiaca

FAUVEL, A. 1895: 95
1895
Loc

Homalota elegantula

BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE, C. 1863: 23
1863
Loc

Homalota rufotestacea

KRAATZ, G. 1856: 245
1856
Loc

Homalota atricapilla

MULSANT, E. & REY, C. 1852: 21
1852