Milichiella lacteipennis

Brake, Irina, 2009, Revision of Milichiella Giglio-Tos (Diptera, Milichiidae) 2188, Zootaxa 2188 (1), pp. 1-166: 84-94

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2188.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AB0903-FFED-FF82-FF5A-6316BB8AF941

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Milichiella lacteipennis
status

 

lacteipennis   -group

Species in the lacteipennis   -group are characterized by the combination of posterior orbital seta present, shiny black ocellar triangle and orbital plates, 2 dc, 1 prsc, prsc about as long as posterior dc, 1 pprn, vein R 4+5 and M strongly convergent, male halter yellow, seta on subepandrial plate absent, lower half of epandrium striate, surstylus usually longer than wide, with slight angle anteroapically and dilation posteroapically and with lateral side striate.

Distribution: America, from southern Canada south to Chile and Argentinia; southern Europe to Japan, south to Africa and Australia; Pacific islands.

Milichiella arcuata ( Loew, 1876)   (Pl. 15C, G)

Lobioptera arcuata Loew, 1876: 339   . UNITED STATES. New York: Long Island. HT ♂ MCZ. Osten Sacken 1878: 209 [catalogue, North America]; Smith 1890: 403 [New Jersey]; Johnson 1895: 339 [Florida], 1904: 163 [New Jersey], 1910: 813 [New Jersey]; Becker 1907: 535 [diagnosis].

Milichia arcuata   . Aldrich 1905: 651 [catalogue, North America].

Milichiella arcuata   . Johnson 1913: 89 [Florida], 1925: 287 [Massachusetts], 1927: 225 [Maine], 1930: 157 [Massachusetts]; Malloch 1913b: 132 [District of Columbia, Maryland, Canada]; Curran 1928: 68 [ Puerto Rico] (pers. note: identification doubtful); Johannsen 1928: 864 [New York]; Procter 1938: 348 [citation], 1946: 403 [citation]; Wolcott 1936: 391 [checklist, Puerto Rico] (pers. note: identification doubtful); Brimley 1938: 389 [checklist, North Carolina]; Sabrosky 1965: 733 [Nearctic catalogue]; Cole 1969: 390 [Arizona]; Frost 1969: 99 [light trap, Florida]; Aldrich & Barros 1995: 213 [chemical attraction to [E]-2-Hexenal]; Poole 1996: 179 [Nearctic checklist]; Brake 2000: 104 [world catalogue]; Anonymous 2009 [type information, photos].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny mesonotum, white wings and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2.5–3.2 mm; wing length: 2.2–2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, sometimes basomedially reddish, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron with anepisternum and middle of katepisternum shiny, otherwise brown microtomentose, wing white, veins white, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2+0.8 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (4om, female: 5–6om) and slight emargination.

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M strongly convergent (3.1); M-ratio is 1.5. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae. S5 2.1 x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 1.3x as wide as S4, setulose on posterior 3/4 except for middle line (G). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial setae; dorsal length of epandrium less than in Milichiella lucidula   ; epandrium with striate anteroventral extension and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.3x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.4x) with anterior margin straight and slight angle at anteroapical margin, 2.0x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface striate, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 15C).

Special characters: wings and abdomen bright white, labellum shorter than palpus.

Material examined: For specimen data of Milichiella arcuata   see http://ww.milichiidae.info.

Milichiella arcuata   var.: UNITED STATES. Florida: Marion Co., Ocala National Forest, Rd 65 (29°10'.12" N 81°46'59.88" W), 10–15.vi.1984, Marshall (♀ DEBU, 3217791); Ocala National Forest , Silver Springs Woods (29°10'.12" N 81°46'59.88" W), 15–22.vi.1984, Marshall (♂ DEBU, 3217783), 23–24.vi.1984 (♀ DEBU, 3217784); Ocala National Forest , Zay Prairie (29°12'0"N 81°49'.12"W), 14–18.vi.1984, Marshall (6♀ DEBU, 3217785–90). Massachusetts: Barnstable Co. , Provincetown (42°3'0"N 70°10'.12"W), 24.vii.1937, Melander (♂ USNM, 3217093). New Jersey: Burlington Co. , Oswego Lake (39°43'.12" N 74°28'59.88" W), 30.viii.1974, Menke & Miller (♂ USNM, 3217230)   .

Questionable specimens of Milichiella arcuata   var.: UNITED STATES. Florida   : Putnam Co., Hollister (29°37'.12" N 81°48'0" W), 26.viii.1985, Milstrey (♂ USNM, 3217100). Texas   : Cameron Co., Boca Chica, 38.6 km E Brownsville (25°54'0"N 97°28'59.88"W), 2–3.viii.1963, Howden & Howden (♂ CNC, 3217123). Distribution : Middle and Eastern North America , from Kansas GoogleMaps   to southern Quebec and Maine   , south to Texas and Florida.

Remarks. Specimens of the variety differ   in having hyaline wings, a black abdominal tip, as well as wider and shorter S5.

Milichiella arcuata   has been collected at light, in Malaise and carrion traps, in Opuntia   fields, in damp secondary growth in Acer-Betula woods, on carrion, at windows, on charred trunks, egg plants, and resting on blossoms of Lactuca scariola var. integrata   ( Asteraceae   ). It has been reared from a chicken pen. The species is fairly common and has been collected May to September in the north and February to December in the south.

Milichiella arcuata   var. has   been collected in wild mushroom traps, “ADg. traps”, mushroom traps [under] Palmetto shrubs ( Arecaceae   ), and Malaise traps. A questionable specimen of this variety emerged   from the detritus of a gopher tortoise burrow.

Pl. 15: A–B. Milichiella argenteocincta   . A. Male genitalia, lateral view; B. Hypandrial complex, ventral view. C–D. Male genitalia, lateral view. C. M. arcuata   ; D. M. lucidula   . E–H. Male sternites 4 and 5. E. M. argenteocincta   ; F. M. argenteocincta   var.; G. M. arcuata   ; H. M. lucidula   . I. M. villarricae   , surstylus. Scale bar: 0.1.

Milichiella argenteocincta Johnson, 1919   (Pl. 15A, B, E, F)

Milichiella argenteocincta Johnson, 1919: 449   . JAMAICA. Kingston. HT ♂ MCZ. Sabrosky 1973: 4 [Neotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue]; Anonymous 2009 [type information, photos].

Pholeomyia argenteocincta   . Gowdey 1926: 89 [checklist, Jamaica].

Milichiella flavipalpis Hendel, 1932: 142   . BOLIVIA. San José de Chiquitos. ST 2# SMNS. Sabrosky 1973: 4 [Neotropical catalogue, Argentina]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue]. Syn. nov.

Milichiella lacteipennis   . Misidentification. Wolcott 1936: 391 [on Murraya exotica   , checklist, Puerto Rico].

Milichiella sp.   Maldonado Capriles & Navarro 1967: 56 [ Milichiella   in Wolcotts list of Puerto Rico is in part a new species nr. M. bisignata   ].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum, grey pleuron and silvery posterolateral corners of male T2.

Description. Body length: 2.9–3.0 mm; wing length: 2.7 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule yellowish, basoflagellomere basomedially yellow, face silvery white microtomentose, palpus yellow, tip sometimes darker; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose (sometimes only slightly), scutellum same, pleuron slightly grey white microtomentose, wing hyaline or white, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 present, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black except for medially and posteriorly yellow fore coxa and ventrally red brown tips of femora, bases of tibiae, and tarsi; abdomen with T2–4 slightly brown microtomentose except for silvery posterolateral margin of T2 and narrow greyish posterior margin of T3–4; T5 shiny except for brown microtomentose anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2+0.5 orbital and 3 frontal setae, anterior frontal setae medioclinate. In males frons 2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (4–5om) and narrow emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.3 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.0); M-ratio is 1.5–2. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 setulose except on silvery parts, anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T3–4 posterior margin setulose, T5 shiny parts setulose. S5 1.7 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 1.1x as wide as S4, rectangular, posterior margin indented, setulose (Pl. 15E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus shorter than longest epandrial seta; pregonite with tuft of strong setulae and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.3x as long as epandrium high, with anteroventral edge, slightly dilated posteroapically (1.3x), anterior margin slightly incurved, 1.6x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface striate, medial surface without setulae, some long sensilla at margin and one in middle (Pl. 15A, B).

Special characters: notch in posterior eye margin sometimes with sharper angle.

Material examined (USNM unless otherwise indicated): ARGENTINA. Bemberg Mts., 12–16.i.1945, Hayward Willink Y Goldbach (♀, 3218992); Formosa: Clorinda (25°16'.12" S 57°45'0" W), 1–30.xi.1947, Morel (3 ♂, 3218994–6), 1–30.xi.1949, Golbach (♂, 3218997). Salta: Aguaray (22°13'59.88"S 63°45'0"W), 14–19.ii.1950, Golbach (8 ♂, BMNH, 3218998–05); Embarcación (23°15'0"S 64°4'59.88"W), 2–6.ii.1950, Golbach (♀, 3218993); Tartagal (22°31'59.88"S 63°49'59.88"W), 14.ii.–19.ii.1950, Golbach (♂, 3219006) GoogleMaps   ; BAHAMAS. Abaco I.: Green Turtle Cay Distr., New Plymouth (26°49'59.88"N 77°22'59.88"W), 7.v.1953, Hayden & Rabb (♀, 3216581). Andros I.: (24°25'59.88"N 77°57'0"W), 14.vi.1912, Bartsch (♀, 3216606) GoogleMaps   ; BOLIVIA. La Paz: Guanay , 38 km S, roadside stream (15°28'59.88"S 67°52'59.88"W), 12.iv.2001, Marshall (♂ DEBU, 3217291) GoogleMaps   ; BRAZIL. Goias: Gurupi, 800 km N Brasilia (15°46'59.88"S 47°57'0"W), 14.ix.1963 (♀ BMNH, 3216597). Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia , 300–500 m (27°11'S, 52°23'W), 15.xi.1936, Plaumann (♀ BMNH, 3216596), 20.viii.1937 (♂ BMNH, 3216589), 4.iv.1938 (♀ BMNH, 3216593), 7.vi.1938 (♀ BMNH, 3216594), 4.ii.1950 (♂ CNC, 3216943), 26.iii.1950 (♀ BMNH, 3216595), 1–31.iii.1950 (♀ CNC, 3216946), 1–31.viii.1965 (♀ CNC, 3216947) GoogleMaps   ; COSTA RICA. Cartago: Turrialba (9°54'0"N 83°40'59.88"W), 15–19.vii.1965, Spangler (♀, 3216598) GoogleMaps   ; DOMINICA. Path to Cabrits (15°30'0"N 61°19'59.88"W), 2.iv.1966, Gagne (♂, 3216605) GoogleMaps   ; GUYANA. Cuyuni-Mazaruni: Mazaruni, Clearing (6°24'N, 58°39'W), 15.ix.1937, Richards & Smart (♀ BMNH, 3216592) GoogleMaps   ; MEXICO. Morelos: Cuernavaca (18°57'0"N 99°15'0"W), 1–31.vii.1965, Krauss (2♀, 3216608–9). Veracruz: Catemaco (18°28'.12" N 95°10'.12"W), 9.i.1980, Waller (♀, 3216580)   ; PANAMA. Panama: Barro Colorado I. (9°9'0"N 79°51'0"W), 18.v.1926, Greene (♀, 3216610) GoogleMaps   ; PARAGUAY. Asuncion: Asuncion (25°16'.12" S 57°40'.12"W), 1–31.vii.1961, Krauss (♂, 3216602). Guaira: Villarrica (25°45'0"S 56°25'59.88"W), 1–31.vii.1937, Schade (♂, 3216601) GoogleMaps   ; PERU. Huanuco: Tingo Maria, 800 m (9°18'0"S 75°58'59.88"W), 5–9.iv.1963, Pena (2 ♂ CNC, 3216944–5). Ucayali: Previsto, 600 m (9°4'59.88"S 75°43'.12"W), 7.vi.1964, Schunke (♂ BMNH, 3216582); PUERTO RICO. San Juan (18°28'59.88"N 66°7'59.88"W), 22.xii.1932, Mills (2 ♂, 3216603–4); TRINIDAD & TOBAGO. Trinidad: Saint Andrew Co., North Manzanilla , El Braneh Swamp (10°31'.12" N 61°1'59.88" W), 20.iii.1957, Aitken (2 ♂, 3216599–00) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED STATES. Alabama: Baldwin Co., Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge (30°18'0"N 87°43'.12"W), 5–7.v.1994, Marshall (♂ DEBU, 3217290). Florida: Jackson Co. , Florida Caverns St. Park (30°48'0"N 85°13'.12"W), 26.v.1973, Wirth (♀, 3216607)   .

Milichiella argenteocincta   var.: PERU. Huanuco: Tingo Maria, Monson Cave (9°18'0"S 75°58'59.88"W), 15.xii.1954, Schlinger & Ross (25 ♂ 25♀ USNM, BMNH, 3216398–47) GoogleMaps   .

Specimens near Milichiella argenteocincta   (all USNM): BAHAMAS. Andros I.: (24°25'59.88"N 77°57'0"W), 14.vi.1912, Bartsch (♂, 3216569); BARBADOS. (13°10'.12" N 59°31'59.88" W), 1916, Ballou (3♀, 3216577–9); BRAZIL. Para: Belem (1°27'0"S 48°28'59.88"W), 1–31.vii.1954, Krauss (8 ♂, 3216561–8); ECUADOR. Guayas: Cuatro Hermanitos Experimental Farm, 4 km WNW Guayaquil (2°13'.12" S 79°54'0" W), 28.ii.1955, Levi-Castillo (♀, 3216574); Hoy Alfuro [?] (2°12'S, 79°50'W), Levi- Castillo (♀, 3216575); PANAMA. Colon: Fort Gulick (9°19'.12" N 79°52'.12"W), 25.vii.1952, Blanton (♀, 3216573). Darien: Garachine (8°4'.12" N 78°22'.12"W), 16.ii.1953, Blanton (4 ♂, 3216557–60), 20.ii.1953 (♂ USNM, 3216554); Jaque [= Jacque?] (7°31'.12" N 78°7'59.88" W), 12.viii.1952, Blanton (2 ♂ 1♀, 3216555–6, 3216572), 28.vii.1952 (2♀, 3216570–1). Panama: Barro Colorado I. (9°9'0"N 79°51'0"W), 18.v.1926, Greene (♀, 3216498); West Indies. Ex plane from Maiquetia, Port of Spain , Curacao, and Cindad Trujillo, 14.viii.1957 (♀, 3216576), ex plane San Juan, P.R GoogleMaps   .

Remarks. The holotype of Milichiella argenteocincta   is male and not female as stated in the original description. Specimens from Peru differ in the lighter legs, dark palpi, the shape of sternites (Pl. 15F) and a silvery microtomentose anterior margin of T3+ 4 in most specimens. Milichiella argenteocincta   has been collected at light, in Malaise traps, on shells, on Murraya exotica Millsp.   ( Rutaceae   ) leaves, in dirt near Atta cephalotes   nests, and from excrement in a toucan's nest.

I here synonymize M. flavipalpis   with M. argenteocincta   based on the original descriptions and the range of specimens I have studied.

Distribution: Mexico (Morelos) north to Alabama and Florida, south to Bolivia and southern Brazil, east to Brazil (Gojas).

Milichiella lacteipennis ( Loew, 1866)  

Lobioptera lacteipennis Loew, 1866: 185   . CUBA. LT ♂ MCZ [pres. des.]. Anonymous 2009 [type information, photos].

Ophthalmomyia lacteipennis   . Williston 1896: 427.

Opthalmomyia lacteipennis   . Hunter 1914: 27 [type information].

Opthalmomyia lobioptera. Error. Hunter 1914: 27.

Milichiella lacteipennis   . Brake 2000: 12 [figs of head, male genitalia and spermathecal duct coil, but not fig. 16B, which is erroneously labeled!]. For complete citations see http://milichiidae.info/en/node/6806.

Millichiella lacteipennis   . Becker 1908b: 203.

Milichiela lacteipennis   . Illingworth 1928: 45.

Milichiella sp.   prob. lacteipennis   . Aldrich 1995: 349 [attracted to Podisius maculiventris pheromone].

Gymnopa nitida Walker, 1836: 359   . BRAZIL. St. Catherine. LT ♀ BMNH [pres. des.]. Comb. Sabrosky 1973: 5. Syn. nov. (see remarks below).

Milichiella nitida   . Sabrosky 1973: 5.

Milichiella nigrella Cole, 1912: 162   . UNITED STATES. California: Laguna Beach. LT ♂ USNM [des. Cole 1925]. Cole 1925: 58 [correction of diagnosis, lectotype designation acc. to ICZN Art. 74.5], 1969: 390 [not synonymous with M. lacteipennis   acc. to Aldrich]. Syn. Sabrosky 1965: 733.

Milichia albohalterata Séguy, 1933: 50   . Nomen nudum [attributed to Becker, Mozambique]. Hennig 1937: 27 [discussion of name, nomen nudum].

Milichiella lactipennis   . Misspelling. Cole & Lovett 1921: 342.

Pholeomyia lactipennis   . Misspelling. Gowdey 1926: 89.

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of posterior eye margin with notch, shiny black mesonotum, yellow halter and male abdomen with T2–4 slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny black posterolateral edges.

Description. Body length: 2.5–3 mm; wing length: 2.5 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule reddish or black, basoflagellomere either completely black or basomedially reddish, face grey microtomentose, palpus black or reddish; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron with anepisternum and middle of katepisternum shiny, otherwise slightly brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–4 slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny black posterolateral edges, T5 shiny except for anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 medially brown microtomentose, laterally shiny, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2+1 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.5x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (5–6om) and narrow emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1(+0.4) prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M strongly convergent (6.5); M-ratio is 1.5. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose except for anterior half, T5 lateral margins with long setae. S5 1.6 x as long as wide, 2.0x as long and 1.5x as wide as S4, roughly rectangular, posterior margin indented, setulose (see Pl. 15E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus shorter than longest epandrial seta; pregonite with tuft of strong setulae; epandrium with striate anteroventral extension and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.3x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.2x), slightly bent anteriorly, straight in posterior view, 1.3x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface striate, medial surface without setulae (see Pl. 15A).

Puparium: empty puparium orange brown, dull. Anterior (thoracic) part dorsoventrally compressed with shallow but distinct lateral depressions on both dorsal and ventral side. Anterior spiracles with 6 spiracular lobes (papillae).

Milichiella nigrella   lectotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. California: Orange Co., Laguna Beach (33°31'59.88"N 117°46'.12"W), Cole ( USNM, 3218318), labeled as   holotype, but lectotype acc. to ICZN Art. 74.5., in good condition.

Milichiella nitida   lectotype, ♀: BRAZIL. St. Catherine (16°49'59.88"S 43°36'0"W), King ( BMNH, 3217265), in rather poor condition, with some legs and setae missing and with some dust. There is one female ST of M. nitida   in BMNH. Walker did not state the number or sex of the type specimens of M. nitida   . The female specimen is here designated as the GoogleMaps   lectotype.

Distribution. America, from southern Canada south to Chile and Argentinia; southern Europe to Japan, south to Africa and Australia; Pacific islands.

Remarks. There are one male and two female syntypes of Milichiella lacteipennis   in MCZ. I here designated the male which has been photographed ("Type 13451", Anonymous 2009) as lectotype.

Gymnopa nitida Walker, 1836   is the senior synonym of M. lacteipennis   . However, the name Gymnopa nitida   has not been used in original literature after 1899 (only in catalogues), whereas the name Milichiella lacteipennis   has been in frequent use (for complete list of citations see http://milichiidae.info/en/node/6806). M. lacteipennis   is therefore designated as the valid name following ICZN Art. 23.9.

Specimens studied by me (but not databased) were collected on goat, dairy cattle and pig dung, manure piles, grass clippings, garden compost, flowers of Donnellsmithia hintonii   M&G., Asclepias   , Baccharis glutinosa   , Ochradenus baccatus   , Tamarix   , and leaves of pawpaw, and in Malaise, light, flight, pan, pit fall, carrion, and dung traps. Habitats are arid zones, beach forest, forest edges, mountain meadows and ponderosa pine/ meadow. Flies were bred from decaying banana skins and ground-nut plots. Milichiella lacteipennis   was observed swarming beside cactus and was attracted by raw or linseed oil or paint.

Milichiella lacteipennis   is kleptoparasitic on spiders with pentatomid bugs as prey ( Krauss 1963, Lopez 1984, Landau & Gaylor 1987).

Milichiella lucidula Becker, 1907   (Pl. 15D, H)

Milichiella lucidula Becker, 1907: 537   . PERU. Callanga; BOLIVIA. Sorata, 2300 m. ST 16 ♂ HNHM, SMTD, ZMHU. Malloch 1913b: 132 [Illinois], 1934: 464 [ Argentina]; Brimley 1942: 29 [North Carolina], 1967: 101 [checklist, North Carolina]; Sabrosky 1973: 5 [Neotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Milichiella bisignata Melander, 1913: 239   . UNITED STATES. New Jersey: Riverton. LT ♂ MCZ [pres. des.]. Sabrosky 1965: 733 [Nearctic catalogue], 1973: 4 [possible synonym of M. lucidula, Neotropical   catalogue]; Arnaud 1966: 149 [list of Melander names]; Cole 1969: 390 [New Mexico]; Poole 1996: 179 [Nearctic checklist]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue]; Anonymous 2009 [type information, photos]. Syn. nov.

Milichiella bisignata Johnson 1910: 813   [name attributed to Coquillett]. Nomen nudum. Melander, 1913: 240 [nomen nudum].

Milichiella bisbignota   . Misspelling. Brimley 1967: 101 [checklist, North Carolina].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny mesonotum and silvery posterolateral corners of T2.

Description. Body length: 2.8–3.3 mm; wing length: 2.8–3.1 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule sometimes red, basoflagellomere basomedially sometimes red, face grey microtomentose, palpus black, sometimes brown; thorax with mesonotum shiny black except for anterior and posterior margin, scutellum and pleuron slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins yellow or light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 very weak, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black; abdomen with T1–4 slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny black posterolateral corner of T2–4, of which posterolateral corner of T2 is narrow silvery grey, and posteromedial narrow silverish margins; T5 shiny except for narrow microtomentose anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 and anterior margin of T5 brown microtomentose on dorsal side, rest of T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2+0.9 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 1.8–2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.6+0.5 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.3–4.7); M-ratio is 1.8–2.0. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.5x as long and 1.3x as wide as S4, roughly rectangular, posterior margin indented, strongly setulose with short setae (Pl. 15H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as epandrial setae; epandrium with striate anteroventral extension and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.4x as long as epandrium high, slightly dilated posteroapically (1.6x), anterior margin more or less straight, 2.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface striate, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 15D).

Special characters: palpus ventrally strongly setulose.

Milichiella lucidula   syntypes: BOLIVIA. La Paz: Sorata, 2300 m (15°46'59.88"S 68°37'59.88"W), 23.xii.1902, Schnuse (10 ♂ SMTD, ZMHU, 3216473–9, 3216482–4), 1–31.xii.1902 (♂ SMTD, 3216480) GoogleMaps   ; PERU. Callanga (5 ♂ HNHM, 3218394–8). Becker's ST   series consists of male specimen(s) from Peru , Callanga, at HNHM   and male specimen(s) from Bolivia, Sorata from the Schnuse collection. At the ZMHU   , there are 3 ST, of which two bear Becker's determination labels. At the HNHM   , there are 5 ST of which one bears Becker's identification label. At the SMTD   there are 2 ST that bear Becker's determination labels and a further 6 ST   bearing just the locality and collection labels. Additional Schnuse specimens from Peru and Bolivia (5 males) are in DEI   . The DEI   specimens are not treated as syntypes because all the Schnuse specimens in DEI   appear not to have been identified by Becker, but other people.

Milichiella bisignata   paralectotype: UNITED STATES. New Jersey: Burlington Co., Riverton (40°0'0"N 75°0'0"W), 4.vii.19??, Johnson (♂ USNM, 3216499). Milichiella bisignata   was described from two male specimens, one in USNM and one in MCZ. I here designate the MCZ specimen which has been photographed ("Type 7888", Anonymous 2009) as GoogleMaps   lectotype.

Additional material examined (USNM unless otherwise indicated): ARGENTINA. Buenos Aires: Bahia Blanca (38°45'0"S 62°15'0"W), 10.xi.1946, Wilhule [?] (♂, 3216495), 23.x.1926, Edwards & Edwards (♂ BMNH, 3216486) GoogleMaps   . Catamarca: El Arenal, W. cord. Aconquija , 2600 m (27°6'0"S 66°19'59.88"W), 3–4.x.1968, Pena (♂ CNC, 3216960) GoogleMaps   . Formosa: Clorinda (25°16'.12" S 57°45'0" W), 1–30.xi.1947, Morel (♂, 3216489). Tucumán: Aconquija (26°48'0"S 65°21'0"W), 6–10.xii.1950, Golbach (♂, 3216497); Cacavera (27°0'0"S 65°30'0"W), 23–28.xi.1951, Aczel & Golbach (2 ♂, 3216493–4); Quebrada La Toma (27°0'0"S 65°30'0"W), 21.xii.1950, Golbach (♂, 3216496); BOLIVIA. La Paz : Sorata , 2300 m (15°46'59.88"S 68°37'59.88"W), 22.xii.1902, Schnuse (♂ DEI, 3218274), 1–31.xii.1902 (2 ♂ DEI, 3218275–6). Pando: near mouth of Rio Mapiri (10°10'59.88"S 66°34'.12"W), 1–30.ix.1921, Mann (2 ♂, 3216491–2) GoogleMaps   . Santa Cruz: Campo Guairuy , 24 km S Camiri, 870 m (20°7'59.88"S 63°33'0"W), 18.viii.–2.ix.2000, Irwin & Hauser (2 ♂ 1♀ DEBU, 3217287–9); BRAZIL GoogleMaps   . Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia , 300–500 m (27°11'S, 52°23'W), 9.vii.1937, Plaumann (♂ BMNH, 3216485); CHILE GoogleMaps   . Region del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins: Cocalan (34°13'.12" S 71°19'.12"W), 10–14.iii.1954 (♂ CNC, 3217677); COLOMBIA. Ujhelyi, Sierra S. Lorenzo , 1–31.iii.1912 (8 ♂ HNHM, 3218482–5, 3218509–12); COSTA RICA   . Cartago: La Suiza (9°51'0"N 83°37'.12"W), Schild (3 ♂, 3216487–8, 3216506)   . Heredia: Santo Domingo, near INBio Park (9°58'4"N, 84°5'5"W), 20.viii.2001, Barber (4♀ DEBU, 3217678–81); ECUADOR GoogleMaps   . Azuay: 10 km W Santa Isabel , 1500 m (3°22'.12" S 79°22'.12"W), 10–13.iii.1965, Pena (3 ♂ CNC, 3216956–8)   . Imbabura: Yaguarcocha , 3 km N Ibarra, 1950 m (0°22'59.88"N 78°4'59.88"W), 8–9.vi.1965, Pena (♂ CNC, 3216959) GoogleMaps   . Pichincha: Valley near Hosteria San Jorge , 10 km NW Quito, 3000 m (0°13'59.88"S 78°30'0"W), 23.x.1999, Marshall (♂ DEBU, 3217286); LESOTHO GoogleMaps   . Maseru, Roma Mission, Upper Cave, Sandstone level, 1829 m (29°30'0"S 28°0'0"E), 4–13.i.1963, Stuckenberg & Stuckenberg (5 ♂ 1♀ NMP, 3218727–31, 3218739) GoogleMaps   ; Quthing, Orange River near   Quthing (30°24'0"S 27°43'0"E), 1–31.i.1963, Stuckenberg & Stuckenberg (♂ NMP, 3218736); MEXICO GoogleMaps   . Chiapas: San Cristobal de las Casas , 2157 m (16°45'0"N 92°40'.12"W), 3–7.vi.1969, Peterson (♂ CNC, 3216962), 27.vi.1969 (♂ CNC, 3216961), 14.v.1969, Mason (♂ CNC, 3216964), 17.vi.1969 (♂ CNC, 3216963)   . Hidalgo: Agua Grande Fria (20°58'0"N 99°12'0"W), 1–30.ix.1950, Wiegand (5 ♂ USNM, 3216500–4) GoogleMaps   . Morelos: Cuernavaca (18°57'0"N 99°15'0"W), 1–31.v.1945, Krauss (♂, 3216553), 1–30.vi.1945 (2 ♂, 3216551–2), 1.iii.–31.v.1965 (♂, 3216514) GoogleMaps   . Sonora: 16.1 km SE Guaymas (27°58'59.88"N 110°54'0"W), 13.viii.1959, Painter & E.M. (♂, 3216505); PERU GoogleMaps   . Cusco: Urubamba river, Umahuankilia (10°41'47.04"S 73°44'53.16"W), 18.ix.1903, Schnuse (♂ DEI, 3218278) GoogleMaps   . Lima: Lima (12°3'0"S 77°3'0"W), 1–31.iii.1928, Shannon & Sainz (♂, 3216490) GoogleMaps   ; Pasco: Pichis-Weg (9°58'59.88"S 74°58'59.88"W), 1–31.i.1904, Schnuse (♂ DEI, 3218277); SOUTH AFRICA GoogleMaps   . Cape: 3 km NW Grahamstown, Strowan Farm (33°18'0"S 26°31'59.88"E), 1–2.i.1986, Londt (4 ♂ 1♀ NMP, 3218732–5, 3218738); Jeffreys Bay, Humansdorp area, Coastal Dunes (34°1'59.88"S 24°46'.12"E), 3.xii.1967, Stuckenberg & Stuckenberg (♂ NMP, 3218737). KwaZulu-Natal: Weenen (28°51'0"S 30°4'.12"E), 1–30.iv.1924, Thomasset (♂ BMNH, 3216550); UNITED STATES GoogleMaps   . Delaware: Sussex Co., Gumboro (38°28'.12" N 75°21'0" W), 2.viii.1952, Sabrosky (8 ♂ 3♀, 3216515–22, 3216532–4). District of Columbia: Washington (38°52'59.88"N 77°1'59.88"W), May, Coquillett (♀, 3216548). Florida: Jackson Co. , Florida Caverns St. Park (30°48'0"N 85°13'.12"W), 26.v.1973, Wirth (♀, 3216542) GoogleMaps   . Illinois: Champaign Co., Urbana (40°6'0"N 88°12'0"W), 11.vi.1915 (1 ♂ 2♀ USNM, MCSNM, 3216529, 3216549, 3218205), 17.vi.1915, Aldrich [?] (2 ♂, 3216530–1); Macoupin Co. , Carlinville (39°16'.12" N 89°52'.12"W), Robertson (2 ♂, 3216510–1) GoogleMaps   . Indiana: Tippecanoe Co., Lafayette (40°25'.12" N 86°52'.12"W), 3.vii.19??, Aldrich (♂, 3216512)   . Kansas: Riley Co., Manhattan (39°12'0"N 96°36'0"W), 24.iv.1934, Sabrosky (♂, 3216523), 7.vii.1934 (1 ♂ 5♀, 3216524, 3216535–9), 12.vii.1934 (♀, 3216540) GoogleMaps   . Maryland: Prince Georges Co., College Park (38°58'.12" N 76°55'59.88" W), 29.vi.1913, Knap (♂, 3216513). Missouri: Boone Co. , Columbia (38°57'0"N 92°19'59.88"W), 1–15.xi.1968, Parker (♀, 3216541). New Mexico: Socorro Co. , Magdalena (34°7'.12" N 107°13'59.88" W), 26.vi.1951 Wheeler [?] (2 ♂, 3216507–8)   . Pennsylvania: York Co., Avondale (39°55'59.88"N 76°40'59.88"W), 26.vii.1939, Davis (♀, 3216543), 1–30.ix.1939 (4 ♂ 4♀, 3216525–8, 3216544–7) GoogleMaps   . South Carolina: Oconee Co., Seneca (34°40'59.88"N 82°57'0"W), 20.viii.1957, Richards (♂ CNC, 3218255) GoogleMaps   . Texas: Brewster Co., Big Bend N.P., Green Gulch , 1372 m (29°16'.12" N 103°16'.12"W), 1.v.1959, McAlpine (♂ CNC, 3216955), 7.v.1959 (7 ♂ CNC, 3216948–54)   . Virginia: Augusta Co., Mt. Solon   (38°19'59.88"N 79°4'59.88"W), 1.vii.1951, Murray (♂, 3216509) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity: ARGENTINA. Tucumán: Arroyo , 14 km S El Tala, 700 m (26°7'.12" S 65°16'59.88" E), 13–14.x.1968, Pena (♀ CNC, 3218244)   .

Distribution. New Mexico and Kansas east to New Jersey, south to Florida and Mexico; Central America and western and middle South America, south to middle Argentina.

Remarks. Milichiella bisignata   is a junior synonym of M. lucidula   . I have compared the male terminalia of a syntype of M. lucidula   with those of the paralectotype of M. bisignata   .

Milichiella lucidula   has been collected in Malaise and light traps, pans in grass piles, Acacia   grassland, sweeps on roadside grasses and on mushroom compost.

Milichiella rugosistyla Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 28B, F)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny frons, subshiny mesonotum, yellow halter, and silvery male T2–5.

Description. Body length:? mm; wing length: 3.2 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons shiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere dorsobasally brown, rest orange, face brown microtomentose, lateral margins yellowish silvery, palpus yellow brown; thorax with mesonotum subshiny black, more shiny on posterior half, scutellum shiny, pleuron brown microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline to whitish, veins hyaline to light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 present, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: lunule, basoflagellomere and palpus more yellow than in male, halter yellow, basitarsi yellowish, abdomen with T2–4 slightly brown microtomentose dorsally, shiny laterally, T5 subshiny.

Head: frons with? (female: 2) orbital and? frontal setae, anterior frontal seta?. In males frons 1.9x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (8om) and narrow emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc,? pprn, 1 prs,? keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M strongly convergent (6.0); M-ratio is 1.8. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1–2 rows of setulae. S5 1.1 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 1.7x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, strongly setulose with short setae (Pl. 28F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.5x as long as epandrium high, dilated apically (1.4x), straight, 2.8x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface slightly wrinkled, medial surface without setulae, longer sensilla along margin (Pl. 28B).

Special characters: M bending to R 4+5 quite sharply near wing margin.

Holotype, ♂: PARAGUAY. Cordillera: San Bernardino (25°16'.12" S 57°19'.12"W), Fiebrig ( DEI, 3218284), in suboptimal condition, head setae missing, abdomen dissected.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (♀ DEI, 3218285). BRAZIL: Ceará: Aracaty (4°34'0"S 37°46'0"W), 1.ix.1939, Alves ( USNM, 3219246–7) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Brazil, Paraguay.

Etymology. The species name, rugosistyla   , is derived from rugosus = wrinkled and refers to the slightly wrinkled outer surface of the surstylus.

Remarks. Milichiella rugosistyla   was collected in bat caves.

Milichiella striata Brake   , sp. n.

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black mesonotum and brown microtomentose male T1–5 except for shiny lateral margin of T2 and posterior part of T5, as well as silvery broad lateral margin of T3–4, anterior margin of T4, and anterior third of T5.

Description. Body length:? mm; wing length:? mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule reddish, basoflagellomere basomedially red, face grey microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron with anepisternum and large spot in middle of katepisternum shiny, otherwise brown microtomentose, wing white, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white with yellow margin, halter yellow, legs black, hind tarsus with light brush; abdomen with T1–5 brown microtomentose except for shiny lateral margin of T2, silvery broad lateral margin of T3–4, anterior margin of T4; anterior third of T5 silvery, posterior part shiny.

Head: frons with 2+0.7 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta?slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 1.9x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 2.9x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and narrow emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M strongly convergent (7); M-ratio is 1.9. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 scarcely setulose, anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T3–4 posterior margin with one row of setulae, T5 shiny parts setulose. S5 1.9 x as long as wide, 1.6x as long and 1.2x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, strongly setulose with short setulae (see Pl. 15E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial setae; dorsal length of epandrium less than in lucidula; epandrium with striate anteroventral extension and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.3x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.3x) with anterior margin straight and slight angle at anteroapical margin, 1.8x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface striate, medial surface without setulae, some sensilla at margin and a few in middle (see Pl. 15C).

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. Kansas: Reno Co., Hutchinson (38°3'0"N 97°55'.12"W), 30.vi.1934, Sabrosky ( USNM, 3216611), in good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (2 ♂ USNM, 3216612–3); UNITED STATES. New Mexico: Roosevelt Co., Blackwater Draw nr. Portales , 1219 m (34°10'59.88"N 103°19'59.88"W), 24–30.v.1991, O'Hara & Jorgensen (♂ CNC, 3217126). Distribution. Kansas, New Mexico. Etymology. The species name, striata   , is an adjective derived from the Latin striare = provided with wrinkles and refers to the striate structure of the male surstylus. Remarks. Milichiella striata   was collected in Malaise traps GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella villarricae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 15I)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black ocellar triangle, 2 dc, and T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for posterior half of T5 which is brown microtomentose anteriorly and shiny at tip.

Description. Body length: 2.8–3.0 mm; wing length:? mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere basomedially yellow, face grey microtomentose, palpus yellow; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum same, pleuron silvery grey on dorsal half, wing brownish, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak or absent, calypter white, margin yellow, halter yellow, legs black except for apically yellow fore coxa, yellow tip of fore and mid tibia, and all basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for posterior half of T5 which is brown microtomentose anteriorly and shiny at tip.

Head: frons with 2+0.3 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.9x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista short, less long than base or arista wide, posterior eye margin with notch (5–6om) and narrow emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2); M-ratio is 2.1. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 very weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2+5 posterior half setulose, T3–4 posterior margin with 1–2 rows of setulae. S5 1.4 x as long as wide, 1.5x as long and 1.7x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, strongly setulose with short setulae (see Pl. 15F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus slightly shorter than longest epandrial seta; epandrium with striate anteroventral extension and 0 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.2x as long as epandrium high, not dilated, 0.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface striate, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 15I).

Holotype, ♂: PARAGUAY. Guaira: Villarrica (25°45'0"S 56°25'59.88"W), 1–31.vii.1937, Schade ( USNM, 3216701), in good condition, abdomen dissected. GoogleMaps  

Paratype, same data as HT (♂ USNM, 3216702), on same pin with a Pholeomyia   specimen   .

Distribution. Paraguay.

Etymology. The species name, villarricae   , is a genitive noun derived from the type locality.

DEBU

Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

ZMHU

Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universitaet

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

DEI

Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut

NMP

National Museum (Prague)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Milichiidae

Genus

Milichiella

Loc

Milichiella lacteipennis

Brake, Irina 2009
2009
Loc

Milichiella nitida

Sabrosky, C. W. 1973: 5
1973
Loc

Milichiella sp.

Maldonado Capriles, J. & Navarro, C. A. 1967: 56
1967
Loc

Milichiella bisbignota

Brimley, C. S. 1967: 101
1967
Loc

Milichiella lacteipennis

Wolcott, G. N. 1936: 391
1936
Loc

Milichia albohalterata Séguy, 1933: 50

Hennig, W. 1937: 27
Seguy, E. 1933: 50
1933
Loc

Milichiella flavipalpis

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Sabrosky, C. W. 1973: 4
Hendel, F. 1932: 142
1932
Loc

Milichiela lacteipennis

Illingworth, J. F. 1928: 45
1928
Loc

Pholeomyia argenteocincta

Gowdey, C. C. 1926: 89
1926
Loc

Pholeomyia lactipennis

Gowdey, C. C. 1926: 89
1926
Loc

Milichiella lactipennis

Cole, F. R. & Lovett, A. L. 1921: 342
1921
Loc

Milichiella argenteocincta

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Sabrosky, C. W. 1973: 4
Johnson, C. W. 1919: 449
1919
Loc

Opthalmomyia lacteipennis

Hunter, S. J. 1914: 27
1914
Loc

Milichiella arcuata

Brake, I. 2000: 104
Poole, R. W. 1996: 179
Aldrich, J. R. & Barros, T. M. 1995: 213
Cole, F. R. 1969: 390
Frost, S. W. 1969: 99
Sabrosky, C. W. 1965: 733
Procter, W. 1938: 348
Brimley, C. S. 1938: 389
Wolcott, G. N. 1936: 391
Curran, C. H. 1928: 68
Johannsen, O. A. 1928: 864
Johnson, C. W. 1913: 89
Malloch, J. R. 1913: 132
1913
Loc

Milichiella bisignata

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Poole, R. W. 1996: 179
Cole, F. R. 1969: 390
Arnaud, P. H. 1966: 149
Sabrosky, C. W. 1965: 733
Melander, A. L. 1913: 239
1913
Loc

Milichiella nigrella

Sabrosky, C. W. 1965: 733
Cole, F. R. 1925: 58
Cole, F. R. 1912: 162
1912
Loc

Milichiella bisignata

Melander, A. L. 1913: 240
Johnson, C. W. 1910: 813
1910
Loc

Millichiella lacteipennis

Becker, T. 1908: 203
1908
Loc

Milichiella lucidula

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1973: 5
Brimley, C. S. 1942: 29
Malloch, J. R. 1913: 132
Becker, T. 1907: 537
1907
Loc

Milichia arcuata

Aldrich, J. M. 1905: 651
1905
Loc

Ophthalmomyia lacteipennis

Williston, S. W. 1896: 427
1896
Loc

Lobioptera arcuata

Becker, T. 1907: 535
Johnson, C. W. 1895: 339
Smith, J. B. 1890: 403
Osten Sacken, C. R. 1878: 209
Loew, H. 1876: 339
1876
Loc

Lobioptera lacteipennis

Loew, H. 1866: 185
1866
Loc

Gymnopa nitida

Sabrosky, C. W. 1973: 5
Walker, F. 1836: 359
1836