Chibchea araona, HUBER, 2000

HUBER, BERNHARD A., 2000, New World Pholcid Spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae): A Revision At Generic Level, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2000 (254), pp. 1-348: 174-182

publication ID 10.1206/0003-0090(2000)254<0001:NWPSAP>2.0.CO;2

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Chibchea araona

new species

Chibchea araona   , new species Figures 31 View Figs , 669–674 View Figs

TYPES: Male holotype, 93 14♀ paratypes from Oruro, Dept. Oruro, Bolivia   ; 12,500 ft elev., in house, Mar. 24, 1958 (F. Walsh), in AMNH   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition honoring the Araona people who live in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. Numbering more than 20,000 people at the beginning of the century, the tribal population was down to about 60 people by the 1980s.

DIAGNOSIS: Closely related to C. aberrans   , distinguished by the wider procursus and the shapes of its distal structures (figs. 669–670).

MALE (holotype): Total length 2.5, carapace width 1.0; leg 1: 12.9 (3.5+0.4+3.7 +4.2+1.1), tibia 2: 2.7, tibia 3: 2.1, tibia 4: 2.9; tibia 1 l/d: 33. Prosoma shape as in C. mapuche   (cf. figs. 700, 701); distance PME- ALE about 80% of PME diameter. Carapace, clypeus, and sternum light brown; ocular area only slightly darker. Chelicerae brown, basal segments unmodified except basal transverse ridge, fangs with tiny projection (fig. 31). Palps in general as in C. salta   (cf. figs. 657–658), but procursus simpler (figs. 669–670); tarsal organ exposed. Legs light brown, without rings; with curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi, without spines and vertical hairs; tarsus 1 with ~ 17 pseudosegments; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 34%. Opisthosoma shape as in C. mapuche   (cf. fig. 699), but slightly more rounded posteriorly, gray with large blackish spots dorsally and posteriorly, genital plate brown, much wider than long; gonopore without epiandrous spigots; ALS with only one piriform gland spigot each.

FEMALE (type locality): Total length (N = 10) 1.6–2.4 (x¯ = 2.1), tibia 1 (N = 10) 2.0– 2.9 (x¯ = 2.5). Habitus as in male. Epigynum simple flat plate (figs. 671, 673), internal genitalia with pore ‘‘plates’’ apparently forming pair of globular receptacles (figs. 672, 674).

VARIATION: Tibia 1 in 9 males from type locality: 2.7–4.4 (x¯ = 3.5). The epigynum is quite variable in external appearance (pigmentation), but apparently much less variable internally (figs. 671–674; cf. C. salta   ). In the specimens from La Paz, the genitalia and chelicerae appear identical, but the legs are significantly shorter: tibia 1 in 5 males: 1.7–1.9   ; in 3 females: 1.5–1.7.

DISTRIBUTION: Known from western Bolivia (Oruro, La Paz) and northern Chile (Tarapacá).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: BOLIVIA: Oruro: Oruro: types above   ; same locality, same collector: no date, 23 9♀ in AMNH   ; Oruro city, rock pile, Mar. 16, 1958, 33 3♀ some juveniles in AMNH. The following Bolivian material is tentatively assigned to the species (because of the significantly shorter legs, see above): La Paz : La Paz , 12500 ft elev., in house, Jan.–Feb. 1959 (R. Walsh), 33 2♀   ; same locality, same collector: Mar.–Apr. 1959, 13 3♀ in AMNH   ; Dec. 1958, 1♀; Valle de La Luna, 15 km S La Paz, badlands (~ 16°40'S, 68°12'W), Sept. 19, 1987 (J. Coddington), 13 1♀ 1 juvenile in USNM. CHILE: Tarapacá: Parinacota : 9 km SE Zapahuira (18°21'S, 69°32'W), 3620 m elev., Feb 5, 1994 (N. Platnick, K. Catley, R. Calderón, R. T. Allen), 53 7♀ in AMNH GoogleMaps   ; 2 km S Zapahuira (18°20'S, 69°34'W), 3400 m elev., Feb. 3, 1994 (N. Platnick, K. Catley, R. Calderón, R. T. Allen), 13 in AMNH GoogleMaps   ; 6 km S Zapahuira (18°21'S, 69°34'W), 3420 m elev., Feb. 3–4, 1994 (N. Platnick, K. Catley, R. Calderón, R. T. Allen), 123 7♀ in AMNH GoogleMaps   .

Chibchea uru   , new species Figures 675–684 View Figs View Figs

TYPE: Male holotype from Consuelo , Manú Road km 165, Dept. Cuzco, Peru   ; litter at rotten logs, Oct. 1, 1982 (L. E. Watrous & G. Mazurek), in FMNH   .

ETYMOLOGY: The species name is a noun in apposition honoring the Uru, a fishing and foraging people who lived on floating rafts on Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. About 20 people who were direct descendents of the Uru were left in the 1980s.

DIAGNOSIS: Easily distinguished from its closest described relatives ( C. araona   , malkini   , salta, aberrans   ) by the absence of AME (fig. 681), the small overall size, and by the shape of bulb, procursus, and epigynum (figs. 677–678, 682–683). The MUSM has at least one very closely related species, also from Cuzco, which differs only minimally with respect to the male palps.

MALE (holotype): Total length 1.12, carapace width 0.48; leg 1: 2.75 (0.73+0.21+ 0.73+0.71+0.37), tibia 2: 0.53, tibia 3: 0.45, tibia 4: 0.76; tibia 1 l/d: 9. Habitus and prosoma shape as in figs. 675–676; entire prosoma ochre-yellow; carapace with shallow thoracic groove, six eyes in two triads; distance PME-ALE only ~ 30% of PME diameter. Sternum without frontal humps; chelicerae with transverse ridge basally, and tiny, slightly backward-directed apophyses on fangs (arrow in fig. 681). Palps as in figs. 679–680, coxa with distinct narrow apophysis, femur about cylindrical, with large proximal apophysis, procursus simple, serrate dorsally (figs. 677–678), bulb with prominent prolateral outgrowth and several distal elements (figs. 679, 682). Legs monochromous ochre-yellow, without spines, without curved and vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of leg 1 at 51%; tarsus 1 with ~ 10 pseudosegments. Opisthosoma gray, with slightly darker, large spots dorsally.

VARIATION: Tibia 1 in 5 other males: 0.73– 0.79 (x¯ = 0.76).

FEMALE: Tibia 1 (N = 6) 0.63–0.77 (x¯ = 0.68). In general very similar to male, but

clypeus not as high. Epigynum simple flat plate (fig. 683); dorsal view as in fig. 684.

DISTRIBUTION: Known from two localities in Dept. Cuzco, Peru.

MATERIAL EXAMINED (all in FMNH): PERU: Cuzco: Consuelo : type above   ; same

locality, same collectors, all from leaf litter: Oct. 4, 1982: 23; Oct. 10, 1982: 2♀; Oct. 12, 1982: 23 2♀ (3 vials); Oct. 13, 1982: 13 1♀ 1 juvenile; Pillahuata, Manú Road at km 128, moss and litter on xeric slope, Sept. 26, 1982 (L. E. Watrous & G. Mazurek), 13; same locality, same collectors, from leaf litter, Sept. 24, 1982: 1♀.

Chibchea silvae   , new species Figures 685–691 View Figs

TYPES: Male holotype, 73 8♀ paratypes from Acjanaco-Tres Cruces (13°18'S, 71°40'W), Cuzco, Peru GoogleMaps   ; Mar. 2–3, 1990 (D. Silva), in MUSM   .

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the collector of all the material studied.

DIAGNOSIS: Easily distinguished from described congeners by the pale coloration, the almost complete reduction of AME, and the shape of procursus and epigynum (figs. 686, 691). The MUSM has a very close, as yet undescribed relative from the same locality, which has shorter legs, dark marks on the prosoma and dark rings on the femora.

MALE (holotype): Total length 2.3, carapace width 1.0; leg 1: 23.1 (5.6+0.4+5.9 +9.3+1.9), tibia 2: 4.0, tibia 3: 3.1, tibia 4: 3.6; tibia 1 l/d: 68. Habitus as in fig. 685; prosoma entirely yellowish-ochre, only dorsally with darker median line in thoracic groove, and light brown mark behind ocular area (fig. 687). Ocular area only slightly elevated, AME rudimentary; distance PME- ALE about 100% of PME diameter. Sternum pale yellowish, without humps; chelicerae pale yellowish, in structure very similar to those in C. aberrans   (cf. fig. 665); basal segments unmodified except proximal transverse ridge, fangs with small, semitransparent pro- jections. Palps (fig. 688) with distinct narrow coxal apophysis, fingerlike apophysis on trochanter, femur proximally with characteristic retrolateral projection, procursus as in figs. 686, 688, bulb with sclerotized apophysis and transparent membranous element on embolar division (figs. 688–689). Legs yellowish, only on tibiae brown ring distally; without spines; curved hairs on tibiae 1–3, many vertical hairs on all metatarsi, especially proximally on metatarsi 1–3; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 apparently missing in holotype, in paratype at 10%; tarsus 1 with> 20 pseudosegments (difficult to count proximally). Opisthosoma shape as in fig. 685, pale grayish, dorsally with two small dark marks.

FEMALE (type locality): Tibia 1 (N = 10) 3.9–4.5 (x¯ = 4.2). In general very similar to male, but without curved and vertical hairs on legs. Epigynum simple flat plate, with slightly darker arch frontally (fig. 691); internal genitalia with large, undulating pore plates apparently fused medially (fig. 690).

VARIATION: Tibia 1 in 15 males: 4.9–6.0 (x¯ = 5.5). Most specimens still have tiny lenses of the AME, but in some there is no pigment left and the lenses are difficult to see. The pattern on the opisthosoma ranges in both sexes from no marks at all to four pairs of large blackish marks (in an apparently freshly molted male).

DISTRIBUTION: Known from Cuzco and Madre de Dios ( Peru).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: PERU: Cuzco: Acjanaco-Tres Cruces: types above   ; same locality, Mar. 1990 (D. Silva), 53 in MUSM   ; same locality, Mar. 12, 1991 (D. Silva), 13 1♀ in MUSM   ; same locality, July 3, 1991 (D. Silva), 13 in MUSM   ; Wiñayhuaina (~ 13°07'S, 72°34'W), 2700–3100 m elev., Feb. 9–11, 1990 (D. Silva), 23 2♀ in MUSM (assigned tentatively) GoogleMaps   ; Parque Nacional Manú, Carretera Paucartambo–Pilcopata , 2750 m elev., Feb. 18, 1990 (D. Silva), 13 in MUSM   ; same locality at 2650 m elev., Feb. 18, 1990 (D. Silva), 23 4♀ in MUSM   ; same locality at 2150 m elev., Feb. 17, 1990 (D. Silva), 13 1♀ in MUSM. Madre de Dios: Zona Reservada Pakitza (11°56'S, 71°17'W), July 4, 1991 (D. Silva), 43 1♀ in MUSM GoogleMaps   .

Chibchea malkini   , new species Figures 692–698 View Figs

TYPES: Male holotype, 13 4♀ paratypes from Sacramanto Camp , Ingavi-Coroico Rd. , Yungas, Dept. La Paz, Bolivia   ; July 9–13, 1964 (B. Malkin), in AMNH   .

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the collector of the type material.

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from close relatives ( C. salta, aberrans   , araona   ) by the simple pointed procursus (figs. 693–694), and the longer, much thinner legs.

MALE (holotype): Total length 2.2, carapace width 1.0; leg 1: 22.6 (5.5+0.3+5.6 +9.2+2.0), tibia 2: 3.6, tibia 3: 2.7, tibia 4: 3.3; tibia 1 l/d: 64. Prosoma shape as in C. mapuche   (cf. figs. 700–701); distance PME- ALE about 90% of PME diameter. Carapace light brown, darker medially and around ocular area, less pigment around AME than in C. mapuche   (cf. fig. 701), clypeus with pair of darker brown bands, sternum light ochrebrown, darker at margins. Chelicerae brown, basal segments unmodified, except (apparently) basal transverse ridge, fangs with small projection (fig. 696). Palps as in figs. 692, 695, with distinct retrolateral coxal apophysis, femur proximally with large retrolateral protrusion, procursus and bulb distally ending in single pointed tips. Legs light brown, with rings on femora (subdistally) and tibiae (proximally and subdistally), almost all hairs missing; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 13%; tarsus 1 with ~ 25 pseudosegments (distally distinct, proximally difficult to count). Opisthosoma shape as in C. mapuche   (cf. fig. 699), but slightly more rounded posteriorly, ochre-gray with some blackish spots dorsally and posteriorly.

FEMALE (paratypes): Total length 1.6–1.9; tibia 1: 3.1–3.5. Habitus as in male. Epigynum simple flat plate, brown laterally (fig. 697), internal genitalia with pair of large pore plates (fig. 698).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from type locality.


Chibchea mapuche   , new species Figures 699–709 View Figs View Figs

TYPES: Male holotype, 33 6♀ paratypes from Parque Nacional Cerro Nielol , Temuco, Cautin, Chile   ; 230 m elev., wet forest, Jan. 27, 1985 (N. I. Platnick & O. F. Francke), in AMNH   .

ETYMOLOGY: The species name is a noun in apposition honoring the Mapuche, the largest Amerindian tribe in Chile, known for their resiliency to external pressure.

DIAGNOSIS: Close relative of C. picunche   and elqui   , distinguished from both by the more proximal position of the cheliceral apophyses (fig. 704), and the tip of the procursus (compare figs. 706, 712, 718); from C. elqui   also by the single bulbal apophysis (compare figs. 702, 719).

MALE (holotype): Total length 2.8, carapace width 1.2; leg 1: 19.4 (5.2+0.5+5.3 +6.9+1.5), tibia 2: 3.6, tibia 3: 3.1, tibia 4: 3.9; tibia 1 l/d: 47. Habitus as in fig. 699. Carapace with deep thoracic groove (fig. 701), light brown with darker roundish spot and lateral margins (fig. 700), eight eyes on moderately elevated, dark brown ocular area; distance PME-ALE about 60% of PME diameter. Clypeus brown, sternum wide (fig. 705), light brown; chelicerae with one pair of large frontal apophyses (fig. 704), fangs unmodified. Palps as in figs. 702–703, coxa with roundish, indistinct retrolateral apophysis, femur with retrolateral bulge proximally, procursus as in fig. 706, bulb with single distal apophysis (figs. 702–703). Legs light brown, without rings; curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi (mainly legs 2 and 3), without spines and vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 18%; tarsus 1 with ~ 22 pseudosegments. Opisthosoma ochregray, many large blackish spots dorsally and posteriorly (fig. 699).

VARIATION: Tibia 1 in 5 males: 4.9–5.6 (x¯ = 5.2). In the material from Quintero, Valparaiso, the prosoma is significantly smaller, but the genitalia seem to be identical.

FEMALE: Total length (N = 11) 2.0–3.3; tibia 1 (N = 12) 3.6–4.5 (x¯ = 4.1). In general very similar to male. Epigynum as in figs. 707–708; dorsal view as in fig. 709, pore plates very difficult to see.

DISTRIBUTION: Known from the Chilean provinces Cautin, Valparaiso, Concepción, Osorno, and the Juan Fernandez Islands (~ 600 km off Valparaiso).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: CHILE: Cautin: Parque Nacional Cerro Nielol, Temuco: types above   ; Valparaiso: Quintero , pitfalls in relict forest, Oct. 2, 1968 (R. Calderón G.), 13 2♀ in AMNH   ; same locality and collector: Mar. 26, 1968, 13 in AMNH   ; Aug. 12, 1968, 33 in AMNH   ; ‘‘ Osorno ,’’ Aug. 1977 (A. Tobar), 13 4♀ in AMNH   ; Concepción: ‘‘mouth of Bío Bío river ,’’ June 8, 1980 (I. Barra), 13 2♀ in AMNH   ; Juan Fernandez Islands: Robinson Crusoe Island: Plazoleta El Yunque, pans near Plazoleta campside, Jan. 23–29, 1992 (S. A. Marshall), 13 2♀ in AMNH   .


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