Cecinothofagus gallaelenga Nieves-Aldrey & Liljeblad

Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis, Liljeblad, Johan, Nieves, María Hernández, Grez, Audrey & Nylander, Johan A. A., 2009, Revision and phylogenetics of the genus Paraulax Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) with biological notes and description of a new tribe, a new genus, and five new species, Zootaxa 2200, pp. 1-40 : 24-31

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.189597

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Cecinothofagus gallaelenga Nieves-Aldrey & Liljeblad

sp. nov.

Cecinothofagus gallaelenga Nieves-Aldrey & Liljeblad sp. nov.

( Figs. 8 View FIGURE 8 , 9 View FIGURE 9 , & 11G)

Type material. Holotype Ƥ (in Museo Chileno de Historia Natural, Santiago de Chile, card mounted). CHILE, Punta Arenas, Reserva Forestal Magallanes, 53º 08' 46 53” S, 71º 00' 12 68” W, 350 m; ex gall on leafs of Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser “lenga” ( Nothofagaceae ), gall collected 9.xii.2006. insect emerged xii.06, J.L. Nieves leg. Paratypes: 13, 3Ƥ same data as holotype. One paratype in MCHN, the remaining paratypes in Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Madrid ( Spain), excepting one female in Pest Diagnostic Laboratory, Tanakajd, Hungary (G. Melika). Non-type material: 1 Ƥ, Argentina , Tierra del Fuego, Ea. San Justo (1–15.ii.1998, Nothofagus forest . C.R. Spagarino leg. ( CNC).

Additionally, 13, 1Ƥ of the type series were dissected for SEM observation; several pupae and adults in ethanol (same data as type material). Galls of Aditrochus fagicolus Rübsaamen on Nothofagus pumilio containing larvae or pupae of C. gallaelenga were collected also at other Chilean localities as follows: Parque Nacional Conguillio, Laguna Captrén (30-i-05); Volcán Osorno (1200m) (2-xii-2006); Puerto Natales-Parque Nacional Torres del Payne (8-xii-2006). All material J.L. Nieves leg.

Etymology. Named after its biology, a species inhabiting a gall on “lenga”, the common name of its host plant Nothofagus pumilio .

Diagnosis. This new species is closely allied with Paraulax gallecoihue , but differs by the predominantly black color; pedicel distinctly shorter than F1, mesopleuron smooth above mesopleural impression, mesoscutal pubescence scarce or absent anteriorly on median lobe of mesoscutum and by the short, incomplete mesopleural impression. Besides morphology, they are also well differentiated by their biology. P.

gallaelenga is associated with N. pumilio inhabiting leaf galls of Aditrochus fagicolus , while P. gallaecohiue attacks bud galls of Aditrochus coihuensis on Nothofagus dombeyi .

Description. Body length (measured from anterior margin of head to posterior margin of metasoma) 2.5 mm (range 2.5–2.58; N = 4) for females; 2.7 mm (N = 1) for males. Coloration of females shining black, except flagellum, almost entire protibia, base and apex of femora and tarsi, which are dark brown. Forewing hyaline, veins dark brown. Male with coloration similar to female, but metasoma paler.

Female. Head in dorsal view 2.1 times wider than long. Gena not expanded behind compound eye. POL 1.6 times longer than OOL, posterior ocellus separated from inner orbit of eye by about 2 times its diameter. Head in anterior view ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 A) more or less trapezoid, 1.2 times wider than high, with slightly concave lateral margin of gena in the middle. Face with sparse, long setation, denser in lower face and almost lacking medially on frons; facial strigae radiating from clypeus absent medially; laterally well marked, reaching close to ventral margin of compound eye; strong, vertical median carina present, running from ventral margin of clypeus almost reaching ventral margin of toruli. Frons delicately coriaceous, almost entirely smooth and shining medially; vertex shining delicately coriaceous. Ocellar plate slightly raised ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 A); malar space 0.47 times height of compound eye. Clypeus indistinct, ventral margin straight, not incised. Subocular impression present, not well marked. 5–7 regular, vertical carinae present ventrolaterally on gena. Anterior tentorial pit conspicuous; epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal lines indistinct. Toruli situated slightly below mid-height of compound eye; distance between antennal rim and compound eye 0.48 times width of antennal socket including rim. Occiput dorsally pubescent with coriaceous sculpture, without dorsal occipital carina, but sharp, well marked genal occipital carina present ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 F). Posterior tentorial pits narrow, slit-like. Hypostomal sulci meeting at hypostoma. Distance between occipital and oral foramina 0.4 times height of occipital foramen.

Mouthparts ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 F). Mandibles strong, exposed; right mandible with three teeth; left with two teeth. Cardo of maxilla visible, maxillary stipes about 2.3 times longer than wide. Maxillary palp five-segmented. Labial palp three-segmented.

Antenna ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 B) half as long as body, with 12 antennomeres; flagellum broadened towards apex; with distinct clava. Pedicel and F1–F5 with sparse, long setation, longer than width of flagellum basally. Placodeal s e n s i l l a i n d i s t i n c t, v i s i b l e o n l y o n F 7– F1 0. R e l a t i v e l e n g t h s o f a n t e n n a l s e g m e n t s: 30:18:21:23:22:21:19:19:19:19:18:40; pedicel 1.2 times longer than wide; F1 2.1 times longer. Ultimate flagellomere 1.9 times longer than wide, 2.2 times as long as F9, ending in a semicircular, truncate apex.

Mesosoma. Pronotum in anterior view, almost entirely glabrous medially, strongly pubescent laterally. Ratio of length of pronotum medially/laterally = 0.3. Pronotal plate distinct; dorsal part distinctly set off, with anterolateral margins marked and moderately projecting laterad ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 G); longitudinal rugae from lateral margin of pronotal plate to lateral surface of pronotum not visible in lateral view but some visible in anterior view. Admedian pronotal depressions oval/ovalltransverse, open laterally, separated by as much as median length of pronotum. Posterior pronotal plate more or less rectangular, bare and smooth, ventral and lateral margins marked. Lateral surface of pronotum smooth; with sparse, white pubescence.

Mesonotum. Mesoscutum 1.1 times wider than long; predominantly without visible sculpture, at most some superficial, delicately coriaceous sculpture present. Mesoscutal pubescence composed of a few long setae concentrated along margins of notauli (9A). Median mesoscutal impression absent. Notauli percurrent, sinuate, not strongly converging posteriorly, almost reaching transscutal fissure ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 A). Posterior separation of notauli at transscutal fissure relatively wide,>0.5 times separation at anterior margin of mesoscutum. Anteroadmedian signa indistinct. Mesoscutum and scutellum separated by a narrow transscutal fissure. Scutellar foveae indistinct, visible only as a shallow, smooth and glabrous depression. Scutellum, in dorsal view more or less pentagonal in shape; in lateral view strongly convex. Dorsal surface of scutellum coriaceous with some rugae, more marked in lateral areas, almost absent medially (9A). Posterodorsal and posterior margins of axillula distinct. Mesopleuron ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 B) beneath mesopleural triangle smooth and glabrous. Mesopleural triangle distinctly impressed and densely pubescent; dorsal margin anteriorly diffuse, not meeting area near prepectus, meeting posterolateral margin of pronotum well below prepectus. Horizontal furrow in lower part of mesopleuron present, relatively wide and incomplete, reduced anteriorly and posteriorly, not reaching ventral margin of mesopleural triangle.

Metanotum. Metascutellum distinctly constricted medially. Area posterior to median constriction of metascutellum not divided by a median vertical bar. Metascutellum narrower in median part than metanotal trough. Metanotal trough smooth, pubescent.

Metapectal-propodeal complex. Metapleural sulcus reaching posterior margin of mesopectus at about mid height of metapectal-propodeal complex. Lateral propodeal carinae narrow, parallel ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 C). Lateral and median propodeal areas smooth, pubescent. Nucha dorsally with some irregular rugae.

Legs. Profemur with process of 4–5 rows of sharp, closely spaced, deep costulae visible as swelling on basal third of profemur. Tarsal claw with moderately bent apex; base produced into a secondary small, acute tooth, measuring less than 1/6 of length of apical tooth ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 D).

Forewing ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 H). Slightly longer than body. Radial cell closed along anterior margin, about 3 times longer than wide; R1 pigmented along radial cell; radius (Rs) straight, reaching anterior margin of wing. Areolet indistinct; vein Rs+M weakly pigmented, but visible, directed towards lower half of median vein. Fringe of long setae along apical margin of wing.

Habitus of species of Paraulax : (A) P. perplexa , female. (B) P. perplexa , male. (C) P. queulensis , female.

(D) P. queulensis , male. (E) P. ronquisti , male.

Metasoma. Metasoma ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 E) shorter than head plus mesosoma; in lateral view 1.4 times longer than high; laterally compressed. Abdominal petiole dorsally smooth, ventrally with deep longitudinal grooves. T1 crescent-shaped; not dorsally keeled. T2 covering about half of metasoma; anteromedian area of T2 with group of 10–12 setae, not enough to form a conspicuous setal patch; smooth and shining, without micropuncture. Projecting part of hypopygial spine 2.6 longer than high; apical pubescence of hypopygial spine projecting beyond apex, subapical setae longer than apical ones, together forming a small tuft.

Male. Similar to female except as follows (size and colouration already discussed). Antenna ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 D) 15- segmented. Flagellum not distinctly expanded towards apex. F2 slightly curved and slightly expanding from base to apex. Relative length of antennomeres: 17:10:18:22:20:18:15:15:14:14:13:13:13:13:19. Placodeal sensillae present on all flagellomeres. Metasoma ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 F) smaller than that of female; 1.8 times longer han high; T2 covering ¼ 'length of metasoma. Anteromedian area of T2 with group of only 6–7 setae.

Distribution. The distribution of this species is linked to the habitat of its host gall, the Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) forests of Chile and Argentina . The “lenga” is distributed mainly throughout the southern Andes from aproximately 35º parallel in Chile (where it is confined to higher elevations) to the southernmost parts of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (where it occurs also at sea level) ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 ) ( Hoffmann 1978).

Biology. A lethal inquiline or parasitoid in leaf galls of Aditrochus fagicolus Rübsaamen (Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae ) on Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp et Endl.) Krasser. (Nothofagaceae) ( Figs. 12 View FIGURE 12 E & 12F). Nothofagus pumilio , commonly named “lenga”, is the most important forest component of South Patagonia. Galls develop in the leaf blade, attached to the midrib. The gall is a globular swelling protruding from both sides of the leaf. It is green or reddish, with a surface of fine hairs. A section through a gall ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 F) shows that i is unilocular (a single, central larval cell), structurally similar to the bud galls on N. dombeyi .


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