Kermes shastensis Ehrhorn,

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264: 157-160

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

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Kermes shastensis Ehrhorn


Kermes shastensis Ehrhorn  ( Fig. 63View FIGURE 63)

Kermes shastensis Ehrhorn 1911  , 275–276. Type data: USA, California, Siskyou County, Shasta Springs, on Quercus chrysolepis  . Syntypes, female. Type depository: USNM.

Material examined. USA, California, Yosemite NP, on Castanopsis sempervirens  ( Fagaceae  ),, K. Kosztarab ( USNM): 1/1ad ♂ (fair, no antennae and wings crumpled). Also: California, nr. town of Mammoth Lake, on Castenopsis sempervirens  ,, M. Kosztarab ( USNM): 1/2 ad ♂♂ (fair, only one antenna, wings crumpled).

Described from all 3 specimens.

Mounted material: of moderate size, total body length 1.65–1.78 mm; antennae about 2/3 body length; body with few setae, fleshy setae (fs) hard to separate from hs; length of fs on antennae about twice width of flagellate antennal segments. Wings about 3/4 total body length.

Head: slightly broader than long; width across genae 220–260 µm. Median crest (mc) poorly demarcated and not apparently reticulated. Preoccipital ridge (por) barely visible (due to head orientation), probably bifurcated laterally, median crest with (on each side) 13–16 setae (hs + fs) dorsal head setae (dhs); pores absent. Postoccipital ridge well developed, with short lateral arms. Mid-cranial ridge: dorsal ridge (dmcr) short; ventral ridge (vmcr) distinct, extending almost to preocular ridge; lateral arms (lmcr) well developed; with about 11 ventral mid-cranial ridge setae (vmcrs) (fs + hs) on each side. Genae (g) not reticulated and without genal setae (gs). Eyes: with five pairs of round simple eyes in a line on each side of head: dorsal (dse) and ventral (vse) eyes larger, subequal in size, each 38–42 µm wide; also with 3 pairs of small lateral eyes, each 25–30 µm wide. Ocelli (o) just touching postocular ridge (pocr). Ocular sclerite (ocs) sclerotised, but polygonal reticulations very indistinct. Preocular ridge (procr) very short dorsally, but extending ventrally to just mesad of each ventral eye. Postocular ridge (pocr) strongly developed, extending dorsally past posterior margin of each dorsal eye but not reaching preoccipital ridge (por) medially. Dorsal ocular setae (docs) absent. Ventral head setae (vhs) absent. Preoral ridge (pror) quite well developed. Cranial apophysis (ca) short and bifid.

Antennae: 10-segmented and filiform; 1.0 mm long (ratio of total body length to antennal length 1:0.6). Scape (scp): 40–50 µm long, 60–75 µm wide, with 3 hs. Pedicel (pdc): length 65–70 µm, width 45–55 µm; with a few concentric ridges across most of segment; with 9 fs + 2 hs. Segments III–X all 28–35 µm wide: fs 35–50 µm long; lengths of segments (µm): III 155–185; IV 130–150; V 125–130; VI 125; VII 100–105; VIII 80–85 and IX 45; approximate number of setae per segment: III–VI each with 26–34 fs + 0 hs; VII 24 fs + 1 hs; VIII 18 fs, 0 hs + 1 bristle (ab); IX 15 fs, 0 hs + 1 ab. Segment X elongate oval, length 55–60 µm; not constricted apically; with?4 capitate setae (cap) (most missing), about 4 fs, 0 hs, 3 large + probably 2 small ab.

Thorax. Prothorax: pronotal ridge (prnr) well-developed but probably not fused dorsally; with a well-developed, striated, lateral pronotal sclerite (prn), without lateral pronotal (lpns) setae. Medial pronotal and post-tergital setae apparently absent. Post-tergites not detected. Sternum with a narrow transverse ridge, each with an apophysis; median ridge possibly absent, with 1–3 fs prosternal setae (stn 1 s) on each side. Anteprosternal (astn 1 s) and antemesospiracular setae (am 2 s) absent.

Mesothorax: prescutum (prsc) wider than long, 95–130 µm long; 130–165 µm wide; sclerotised but not reticulated; with 4–6 small setae on each outer margin; prescutal ridges (pscr) and prescutal suture (pscs) well developed. Scutum (sct): median membranous area quite large and quadrate, 33–60 µm long, 125–160 µm wide, with sclerotised ridges along lateral margins, without setae; lateral margins of scutum sclerotised but not apparently reticulated; without scutal seta; prealare ridge (prar) quite well developed. Scutellum (scl) 150–175 µm wide, 66–70 µm long; with an inverted U-shaped scutellar ridge (sclr); probably not tubular but with a large foramen; with 1 pair of small setae (scls) but no small pores. Basisternum (stn 2) 270–330 µm wide, 150–175 µm long; without any signs of a median ridge (mdr), but bounded anteriorly by a strong marginal ridge (mr) and posteriorly by strong precoxal ridges (pcr 2); basisternal setae (stn 2 s) absent; lateropleurite (lpl) quite broad, with a strong extension from marginal ridge along anterior margin; furca (f) well developed, narrow-waisted, arms very divergent and extending just anterior to point where marginal and precoxal ridges meet. Mesopostnotum (pn 2) and postnotal apophysis (pna) well developed. Area bounded anteriorly by scutellum and laterally and posteriorly by mesopostnotum membranous. Mesepisternum (eps 2) not reticulated; subepisternal ridge (ser) long and well developed, arising from antero-lateral margins of lateropleurite. Postalare (pa) without postalare setae (pas). Mesothoracic spiracle (sp 2): width of peritreme 25–32 µm. Postmesospiracular setae (pm 2 s) absent. Tegula (teg) present, with 3 or 4 hs tegular setae (tegs) on each side.

Metathorax: metatergal setae (mts): 0 or 1 on each side. Dorsospiracular setae (dss) absent. Metapostnotal sclerite indistinct. Dorsal part of metapleural ridge (plr 3) well developed; suspensorial sclerite (ss) not detected. Ventral part of metapleural ridge well developed; precoxal ridge (pcr 3) broad and sclerotised but not apparently fused with metapleural ridge; metepisternum (eps 3) membranous, with perhaps 4–7 postmetaspiracular setae (eps 3 s) (hs + fs) on either side near precoxal ridge. Metepimeron (epm 3) sclerotised, but without setae. Antemetaspiracular setae (am 3 s) absent. Metathoracic spiracle (sp 3): width of peritreme 25–32 µm. Metasternum (stn 3) lightly sclerotised, with indistinct metasternal apophyses (st 3 a); with 6 or 7 anterior metasternal setae (amss) (hs + fs) and 11–14 posterior metasternal setae (pmss) (hs+fs).

Wings: hyaline, quite broad, 1325–1425 µm long, 525 µm wide (ratio of length to width 1:0.38; ratio of total body length to wing length 1:0.8); alar lobe (al) distinct; without alar setae (als). Hamulohalteres each 120–130 µm long, 25–40 µm wide; each with a single hooked hamulus, 80–85 µm long.

Legs: prothoracic legs perhaps marginally longest. Coxae (cx): I 120–135; II 120–133; III 110–135 µm long; coxa III with 26–33 setae (fs + hs); long coxal seta about 50 µm long. Trochanter (tr) + femur (fm): I 275–320; II 270–305; III 265–285 µm long; trochanter III with about 12 setae (hs + fs); long trochanter seta clearly differentiated, 70–75 µm long; femur III with 50–65 setae (hs + fs). Tibia (ti): I 280–325; II 270–310; III 275–315 µm; tibia III with many fs + hs, a few becoming spur-like on distal third; with 2 apical spurs (tibs), length 18–23 µm. Tarsi (ta) two segmented, lengths of ta 1 + ta 2: I 95–108; II 100–105; III 95–108 µm long (ratio of length of tibia III to tarsus III 1:0.34); tarsus III with many setae (fs + hs), many spur-like on ventral margin; tarsal spurs not differentiated but seta in this position 18–23 µm long; tarsal campaniform pore present; tarsal digitules (tdt) slightly shorter than claw. Claws (c) robust, slightly longer than width of tarsi (26 µm), slightly curved, with a distinct small denticle at apex; length: III 29–31 µm; claw digitules (cdt) slightly longer than claw, capitate and very thin.

Abdomen: segments I–VII: tergites (at) membranous, sternites (as) all lightly sclerotised. Caudal extension (ce) of segment VII absent. Dorsal abdominal setae (ads): segments I–VII each with 1 pair hs; ventral abdominal setae (avs) (totals): II–VII each with 6–16 setae (hs + fs). Pleural setae: dorsopleural setae (dps) (on each side): I–VII each with 2 or 3 (fs hs); ventropleural setae (vps) (on each side) II–VII each with 0 or 1 (fs or hs).

Segment VIII: tergite apparently unsclerotised with 2 pairs of long hs ante-anal setae (aas); sternite (as) clearly sclerotised, with 2 or 3 pairs of hs ventral abdominal setae (avs); caudal extensions (ce) rounded, each with 1 very long seta, 110–125 µm long + 1 short hs ventral pleural seta and a dorsal pleural seta. Glandular pouches (gp) present, deep, pores restricted to within each pouch; glandular pouch setae each 100–125 µm long.

Genital segments: segment IX sclerotised, broad (100–110 µm wide, 70–75 µm long); anal opening present medially near anterior border on dorsal surface; with 2 or 3 hs on postero-dorsal surface and 4–6 ventrally. Style quite broad anteriorly (60–70 µm wide), tapering to a blunt point; sclerotised; length from base 170–180 µm long; total length of style plus segment IX 240–255 µm (ratio of total body length to length of penial sheath 1:0.2). Aedeagus (aed) elongate, narrowing to a blunt point, length about 100 µm; basal rod (bra) length 160–182 µm. Style without setae (pss) but with a few small sensilla (psp) near apex.

Comment. Adult male K. shastensis  differ from those of the other two species described here in having 2-segmented tarsi. In the above key, adult male K. shastensis  appear to be closest to K. qingdaoensis Hu  from China. On the basis of Hu’s figure, the differences appear to be small. See above key.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History