Schizoporella errata ( Waters, 1878 )

Ramalho, Laís V., Muricy, Guilherme & Taylor, Paul D., 2011, Taxonomic revision of some lepraliomorph cheilostome bryozoans (Bryozoa: Lepraliomorpha) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, Journal of Natural History 45 (13 - 14), pp. 767-798: 775-777

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2010.535917

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Schizoporella errata ( Waters, 1878 )


Schizoporella errata ( Waters, 1878)  

( Figure 4 View Figure 4 )

Lepralia errata Waters 1878: 11   , pl. 1, fig. 9.

Schizoporella errata, Gautier 1962: 149   , fig. 151; Ryland 1965: 64, fig. 31A,B; Hayward and Ryland 1999: 212; Tilbrook et al. 2001: 80, fig. 15B; Tompsett et al. 2009: 2234 View Cited Treatment , figs. 3A–F, 4A–F.

Schizoporella violacea Canu and Bassler 1930: 40   , pl. 4, figs 1–14.

Material examined

Macaé: ship hull Valentin Shashin : MNRJ-212, 1 May 2002, coll. J.E.A. Gonçalves, depth 2 m.   MNRJ-213, 14 December 2002, collected by L. V. Ramalho, depth 2 m.   Arraial do Cabo city: Forno Harbour : MNRJ-010, 11 October 2002, coll. by L. V. Ramalho, depth 0.5 m   ; MNRJ-218, MNRJ-219, 31 July 2003, collected by L. V. Ramalho and D.C. Savi, depths 3 and 0.5 m   , respectively. MNRJ-215, Pedra Vermelha , 27 February 2003, collected by L. V. Ramalho, depth 5 m.   MNRJ-220, Farol beach, 22 January 2003, coll. L. V. Ramalho, depth 0.5 m   . Guanabara Bay : MNRJ-211, ship hull Leo Segerius   , 15 September 1999, coll. J. Quintanilha, depth 2 m.   Sepetiba Harbor: Guaíba Pier : MNRJ-216, MNRJ-206, MNRJ-208, 14 November 2001, collected by IEAPM, depths 0.5, 3 and 7 m   , respectively. Tebig Oil Terminal 2: MNRJ-207, MNRJ-209, 12 November 2001, coll. IEAPM, depth 3 and 7 m   , respectively. MNRJ-210, Iron Ore Terminal , 10 November 2001, collected by IEAPM, depth 7 m   , MNRJ-217, Container Terminal 2, 9 November 2001, collected by IEAPM, depth 7 m.  

Schizoporella errata   . NHM, Suez Channel. NHM 1969.11.4.29, Charkor, Gold Coast (on wood and net), collected by Bassindale   , depth 14 m. NHM 1969.11.4.28, Gorée Harbour, Senegal, collected by M. Marchad.  


Colony encrusting, uni- or multilamellar, sometimes developing erect tubes up to 10 cm high ( Figure 4A View Figure 4 ); older parts brown, orange at the growing edges, sometimes a shade paler when alive; when fixed in alcohol orange colour lost, becoming brown and very dark, almost black, ( Figure 4A,B View Figure 4 ). Size variable, initial growth circular, becoming irregular, up to 30 cm high; forming extensive growths on ship hulls in which boundaries of individual colonies are difficult to define.

Autozooids rectangular to hexagonal, longer than wide (598 µm long, range 456–776 µm, by 395 µm wide, range 272–534 µm), regularly disposed in basal layer of young colonies, irregularly disposed in older colonies with extensive frontal budding ( Figure 4C View Figure 4 ). Autozooids separated by furrows, more visible in young colonies. Frontal wall evenly porous ( Figure 4C–F View Figure 4 ), a small umbo sometimes present below orifice. Orifice circular (163 µm long, range 136–184 µm, by 156 µm wide, range 116–175 µm), with U-shaped sinus, wider than deep (40 µm long, range 29–58 µm by 68 µm wide, range 49–107 µm), and two small condyles on each side ( Figure 4E View Figure 4 ).

Avicularia present or absent, only one per autozooid, triangular with acute mandible, located proximolaterally and close to orifice, directed distolaterally ( Figure 4F View Figure 4 ).

Ovicell globose, surface wrinkled, with some pores.


Colonies directly encrusting harbour piers, nylon ropes or other organisms (ascidians and cirripeds), 0–6 m depth.

Geographical distribution

This is generally considered to be a warm temperate and subtropical species recorded from the eastern and western Atlantic, western Pacific, Mediterranean and Red Sea ( Hayward and Ryland 1999; Tilbrook et al. 2001; Tompsett et al. 2009). In Brazil S. errata   has been previously recorded in an ecological study (São Paulo State) ( Morgado and Tanaka 2001). In the study area it has been found at Macaé, Arraial do Cabo, Guanabara Bay and Sepetiba Harbour.


Schizoporella pungens ( Canu and Bassler, 1928)   resembles S. errata   , their measurements overlapping and colony shape and colour being similar. However, Winston (2004, 2005) mentioned distinct differences, with S. pungens   having a wider and shorter orifice, narrower sinus, smaller and blunter avicularia, and an ancestrula with an ovoidal membranous area.

Despite the great confusion in the identification of Schizoporella species   worldwide ( Hayward and Ryland 1995; Soule et al. 1995; Winston 2005; Tompsett et al. 2009), the Brazilian material agrees well with S. errata   because of characteristics of the orifice, including the sinus, the avicularia and the presence of large pseudopores in shallow depressions on the frontal wall.

Previous taxonomic works (d’Orbigny 1841–47; Kirkpatrick 1890; Marcus 1937; Hayward and Ryland 1979) have mentioned the occurrence of several Schizoporella species   from the Brazilian coast: S. trimorpha Canu and Bassler, 1928   , S. carvalhoi Marcus, 1937   , S. horsti (Osburn, 1927)   , S. pungens ( Canu and Bassler, 1928)   , S. isabelleana (d’Orbigny, 1839)   , S. errata ( Waters, 1878)   and S. unicornis (Johnston, 1847)   . Schizoporella unicornis   has been recorded several times from Brazil, but almost certainly in error. Some authors have placed this species in synonymy with other species of Schizoporella   because it occurs with S. pungens   , mentioned by Marcus (1937) from São Paulo and Bahia.

A detailed review of the Schizoporella species   recorded from Brazil must be done to confirm the correct identities of the species which occur along the Brazilian coast.


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Instituto de Estudos do Mar "Almirante Paulo Moreira"














Schizoporella errata ( Waters, 1878 )

Ramalho, Laís V., Muricy, Guilherme & Taylor, Paul D. 2011

Schizoporella errata, Gautier 1962: 149

Tompsett S & Porter JS & Taylor PD 2009: 2234
Tilbrook KJ & Hayward PJ & Gordon DP 2001: 80
Hayward PJ & Ryland JS 1999: 212
Ryland JS 1965: 64
Gautier YV 1962: 149

Schizoporella violacea

Canu F & Bassler RS 1930: 40

Lepralia errata

Waters AW 1878: 11