Hoplopholcus dim, Huber, 2020
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Hoplopholcus dim sp. n.
Hoplopholcus patrizii (misidentification)— Kunt et al. 2008: 684.
Hoplopholcus Mar 66— Eberle et al. 2018 (molecular data). Huber et al. 2018: fig. 6.
Diagnosis. Distinguished from known congeners by shapes of procursus and bulbal processes ( Figs 186–191 View FIGURES 186–193 ): ventral spine of procursus strongly curved toward ventrally at half length, prolateral process slender and pointed, with prolateral ridge (procursus very similar to H. gazipasa ); ventral bulbal sclerite slender in lateral view, tip of embolar sclerite with small cone-shaped processes (arrow in Fig. 190 View FIGURES 186–193 ); embolar sclerite in dorsal view ( Fig. 188 View FIGURES 186–193 ) wider than in H. asiaeminoris , without subdistal process (in contrast to H. gazipasa ). Females variable and difficult to distinguish externally from congeners; posterior light median area of epigynal plate usually clearly separated from rest of dark plate (similar to H. gazipasa ); median pouch of uterus externus indistinct and not or barely visible in uncleared specimens ( Figs 171 View FIGURES 168–173 , 180, 183 View FIGURES 174–185 ).
Other material examined. TURKEY, Antalya: 2♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 20928), and 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( Tur 59), same data as holotype GoogleMaps . 1♂ 1♀ 2 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 20929), same locality GoogleMaps , 4.i.2013 (Y.M. Marusik). 4♂ 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 20930), and 3♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 57), Alanya District, Cüceler Mağarası (36.489°N, 32.276°E, 270 m a.s.l.), in cave near entrance, 31.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps ; 3♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20931), same locality GoogleMaps , 4.xi.2013 (S. Huber).
Mersin: 3♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 20932), and 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 55), Anamur District, Köşekbükü Astım Mağarası (36.127°N, 32.760°E, 130 m a.s.l.), in cave near entrance, 29.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps .
Uncertain identity (see Redescription below)
TURKEY, Konya: 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 20933), and 1♀ 2 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 47), Seydişehir Dis- trict, Ferzene Mağarası (37.380°N, 31.834°E, 1400 m a.s.l.), in cave, 23.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps . 11♂ 8♀ 1 juv. (3 vials) paratypes of H. asiaeminoris , MCVR, same locality, 23.iv.1973 (S. Forestiero, V. Sbordoni, P. Agnoletti) GoogleMaps . 1♂ 1♀ paratypes of H. asiaeminoris , MCVR, Seydişehir District , “Grotta di Tinaztepe” [Tinaztepe Mağarası, 37.248°N, 31.927°E], 1550 m a.s.l., 20.iv.1973 (P.M. Brignoli) GoogleMaps . 7♂ 3♀ (3 vials) paratypes of H. asiaeminoris , MCVR, Derebucak District , “Grotte 1 e 2 di Korukini” [Körük ini near Çamlik, 37.349°N, 31.627°E, 1350 m a.s.l.], 24.iv.1973 (V. Sbordoni, P.M. Brignoli, S. Forestiero) GoogleMaps . 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 20934), and 3 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 43), Derebucak District , unnamed small “cave 1” near road (37.343°N, 31.622°E, 1395 m a.s.l.), in cave, 22.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk). 2 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 20935), and GoogleMaps 1♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 44), Dere- bucak District , unnamed small “cave 2” near road (37.362°N, 31.586°E, 1395 m a.s.l.), in cave, 22.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps . 1♂, NOHUAM, Yeşildağ, Haccanınini Mağarası (37.54°N, 31.46°E, 1180 m a.s.l.), 16.vii.2007 (A. Topçu) GoogleMaps .
Isparta: 4♂ 3♀ (2 vials) paratypes of H. asiaeminoris , MCVR, “Grotta Inögü Ini”, Kurucaova [~ 37.69°N, 31.38°E], 1280 m a.s.l., 24.iv.1973 (P.M. Brignoli, S. Forestiero) GoogleMaps . 2♀ (2 vials) paratypes of H. asiaeminoris , MCVR, “Grotta Asar Ini”, Kurucaova [~ 37.69°N, 31.38°E], 19.iv.1973 (S. Forestiero, V. Sbordoni) GoogleMaps .
Antalya: 3♂ 1♀ (epigynum lost) paratypes of H. asiaeminoris , MCVR, Akseki [37.045°N, 31.790°E], “Grotta Demirci Dükkanlan” (exact locality not known to me), 590 m a.s.l., 29.iv.1973 (V. Sbordoni) GoogleMaps .
CYPRUS, Paphos: 2♂ 3♀ 4 juvs, CMH, Pomos Dam [35.138°N, 32.579°E, 130 m a.s.l.], 27.iv.2016 (M. Had- jiconstantis) GoogleMaps . 1♂ 2♀ 1 juv., CJVK (2686), Livadi [35.102°N, 32.594°E], picnic area with large stones along rivulet and a well, 28.iv.2007 (J. van Keer) GoogleMaps .
Limassol: 1♀, CJVK (2679), Mount Olympos [~ 34.93°N, 32.86°E], near ski resort in Pinus nigra forest with large stones, 26.iv.2007 (J. van Keer) GoogleMaps . 1♀, CJVK (2986), E Pano Platres, Mesa Potamos waterfalls, picnic area Ar- kolachania [34.893°N, 32.908°E], stones along rivulet, 4.v.2010 (J. van Keer) GoogleMaps .
Nicosia: 1♂, CMH, Prodromos [34.95°N, 32.83°E], inside wall of abandoned building, 10.vi.2017 (M. Hadji- constantis) GoogleMaps . 1♂, CMH, Palaichori Dam [34.929°N, 33.126 °E, 720 m a.s.l.], 19.vi.2017 (M. Hadjiconstantis) GoogleMaps ; 2♀ 3 juvs, CMH, same data but 20.v.2016 GoogleMaps .
Etymology. The species name is derived from the type locality; noun in apposition.
Description. Male (holotype). MEASUREMENTS. Total length 5.5, carapace width 2.1. Distance PME-PME 160 µm; diameter PME 140 µm; distance PME-ALE 40 µm; diameter AME 75 µm; distance AME-AME 50 µm. Leg 1: 50.9 (13.5 + 1.1 + 13.6 + 19.6 + 3.1), tibia 2: 9.1, tibia 3: 6.9, tibia 4: 8.1; tibia 1 L/d: 63.
COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace pale ochre-yellow with slightly darker median band including ocular area; clypeus light brown; sternum brown, darker medially and at margins; legs light brown, without dark rings; abdomen pale gray, with pattern of black internal marks dorsally in posterior third, ventrally with light brown area anteriorly and diffuse black mark in front of spinnerets.
BODY. Habitus as in Fig. 122 View FIGURES 118–123 . Ocular area slightly elevated. Deep thoracic pit and indistinct pair of furrows diverging from pit toward posterior margin. Clypeus unmodified. Sternum wider than long (1.4/1.1), unmodified. Abdomen oval, dorso-posteriorly rounded.
CHELICERAE. Very similar to H. asiaeminoris (cf. Figs 144–145 View FIGURES 142–151 ), with pair of latero-distal apophyses provided with two modified cone-shaped hairs each; with fine stridulatory ridges (barely visible in dissecting microscope).
PALPS. As in Figs 168–170 View FIGURES 168–173 ; coxa with low retrolateral hump, trochanter barely protruding ventrally, femur with transversal dark line retrolaterally and distinct prolateral stridulatory pick; procursus ( Figs 186–187 View FIGURES 186–193 ) with very low ventral ‘knee’, ventral spine strongly curved toward ventrally at half length, with slender pointed prolateral process, prolateral ridge with small pointed process; genital bulb ( Figs 188–191 View FIGURES 186–193 ) ventral sclerite slender in lateral view ( Fig. 189 View FIGURES 186–193 ), embolar sclerite without subdistal process, with small cone-shaped processes at tip (arrow in Fig. 190 View FIGURES 186–193 ); with distinct dorsal membranous process ( Fig. 189 View FIGURES 186–193 ).
LEGS. Femur 1 with single row of ~28 ventral spines; with few curved hairs on tibia 1 and metatarsi 1 and 2; few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 4.5%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all leg tibiae; tarsi without distinct pseudosegments but with many small platelets.
Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 12 other males from Dim Mağarası, Cüceler Mağarası, and Köşekbükü Astım Mağarası: 9.3–16.4 (mean 13.2). These males show only usual slight variation, i.e. in number of spines (femur 1 with ~12–37 spines, depending on leg length; some males with a few spines also distally on femur 2). Tibia 1 in 21 other males from all other localities in Turkey: 12.7–17.7 (mean 15.1); palps in these males almost identical to those from type locality (embolar sclerite slightly narrower in dorsal view). Tibia 1 in four males from Cyprus: 8.0, 8.7, 9.1, 9.2; specimens from Cyprus are smaller and darker, sometimes with dark rings on legs, with homogeneously dark brown sternum, with larger black marks on abdomen; palps in these males apparently identical to those from type locality.
Female. In general similar to male ( Fig. 123 View FIGURES 118–123 ) but without spines on legs. Tibia 1 in 12 females from Dim Mağarası, Cüceler Mağarası, and Köşekbükü Astım Mağarası: 10.5–14.7 (mean 12.7).
FEMALE GENITALIA. Epigynum as in Fig. 171 View FIGURES 168–173 , posterior light median area of epigynal plate usually clearly separated from rest of dark plate, pair of shallow lateral pouches of uterus externus usually connected by distinct internal line; internal arcs evenly curved and usually visible in uncleared specimens; with pair of light brown weakly bulging areas in front of epigynum; posterior plate short but wide. Internal genitalia in female from type locality as in Figs 172–173 View FIGURES 168–173 , 192–193 View FIGURES 186–193 , with pore plates narrowing medially, uterus externus with indistinct pair of lateral pouches and very indistinct low median pouch. Tibia 1 in 18 females from all other localities in Turkey: 10.9–15.7 (mean 13.7); epigynal plates in these females slightly longer and with more distinct pair of lateral pouches of uterus externus visible in uncleared specimens and pore plates slightly wider apart ( Figs 180–182 View FIGURES 174–185 ). Tibia 1 in five females from Cyprus: 7.7–12.9 (mean 9.9); epigyna and internal genitalia in these females very similar to those from Turkey assigned tentatively but lateral pouches of uterus externus farther apart ( Figs 183–185 View FIGURES 174–185 ).
Distribution. Known from southern Turkey and Cyprus ( Fig. 442 View FIGURE 442 ), but note that all specimens other than those from eastern Antalya and western Mersin Provinces (Dim Mağarası, Cüceler Mağarası, and Köşekbükü Astım Mağarası) are assigned tentatively.
Natural history. At the type locality (Dim Mağarası), the spiders were found only in the twilight zone between about 5 and 20 m from the entrance, not deeper in the cave. They built their domed webs close to the ground and were found hanging exposed in their webs rather than close to the rock surface. They did not react to flashlight and were easy to catch. At Cüceler Mağarası, some specimens were found higher above the ground, in niches of the wall and even of the ceiling.
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