Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833,

Zuparko, Robert L., 2015, Annotated Checklist of California Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera), Zootaxa 4017 (1), pp. 1-126: 18-20

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Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833


Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833 

Hosts. Hyperparasitoids of Coleoptera  : Coccinellidae  ; Diptera  : Cecidomyiidae  , Syrphidae  ; Hemiptera  : Aclerdidae  , Cicadellidae  , Coccidae  , Delphacidae  , Eriococcidae  , Kermesidae  , Pseudococcidae  ; Neuroptera  : Chrysopidae  ; via Hymenoptera  : Dryinidae  , Encyrtidae  , Ichneumonidae  , Perilampidae  , Platygastridae 

albinotatus De Santis 1964: 351 [New state record] ( RLZC)

Type. MLPA

Distribution. W (San Benito, Santa Barbara)

Host/habitat. Host unknown, but one specimen was swept from sedge ( Cyperaceae  ), and a series of three specimens were swept from a grassy field.

Remarks. Previously this species has only been recorded from Argentina  , but in addition to those from California, specimens have been collected in Arizona and North Carolina (both UCRC). banksi ( Howard 1898 a: 247)  ( Chrysopophagus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lassen, Los Angeles, Madera, Marin, Modoc, Napa, Nevada, Plumas, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Shasta, Sierra, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Tehama, Tulare)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Antonina graminis  , Eriococcus  sp. via Pseudococcobius  sp.; NEW: Phenacoccus  sp. ( UCRC), Dysmicoccus timberlakei  , hyperparasitoid of Hyperaspis pleuralis  via Homalotylus affinis  ( EMEC)

Remarks. The specimen ( EMEC) reared from D. timberlakei  is probably a hyperparasitoid of an undescribed species of Pseudleptomastix  , which was reared from the same host. This appears to be a species with a high variation in body color—ranging from coppery fuscous with yellow patches to almost totally dark, with the scutellum always at least partly yellow. A Cheiloneurus  species near banksi  was collected from Inyo County ( UCDC), and there is another long series from Los Angeles and Riverside counties ( UCRC).

compressicornis (Ashmead 1894: 246)  ( Chrysopophagus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Nevada, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of undetermined Syrphidae  , Ceraeochrysa cubana  , C. sanchezi  , C. valida  , Chrysopa nigricornis  , Chrysoperla plorabunda  , C. rufilabris  , via Isodromus iceryae  , I. niger  , Gelis tenellus  , Perilampus chrysopae  ; NEW: Chrysopa oculata  , undetermined Hemerobiidae  (both UCRC).

Remarks. Two Cheiloneurus  species near compressicornis  were collected in Nevada & Sierra Counties ( UCDC), another from Imperial County ( UCRC), and two more specimens from Riverside County, which were reared from a whitefly on Encelia  sp. ( Asteraceae  ). Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)  has been recorded as a host in North America  , but some authorities consider this species is restricted to the Palearctic, and would attribute such Nearctic host records to the C. plorabunda  complex. The host record of a syrphid fly stems from a single observation by McGregor (1914) —it remains to be seen if this represents a misidentification, or if the secondary host range of C. compressicornis  does indeed extend beyond the Neuroptera  (there are no records of I. iceryae  , I. niger  , G. tenellus  or P. chrysopae  attacking any Diptera  ).

elegans ( Dalman 1820: 151)  [New state record]( RLZC)

Type. NHRS

Distribution. W (Contra Costa, Marin, Stanislaus)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Mayetiola destructor  (via Platygaster zosinae  ), Aclerda subterranea  (via Paraphaenodiscus subterraneus  ), Eulecanium franconicum  , Phenacoccus hordei  , Physokermes piceae  , Pulvinaria vitis  , Trionymus abberans 

Remarks. In South America  and the Old World, this species is recorded as a hyperparasitoid of Aclerdidae  , Pseudococcidae  and Coccidae  , whereas in North America  it is only known as a hyperparasitoid of Diptera  , which suggests records of this species represents a complex of species or two biological races of one species ( Ferriere 1952). Neunenschwander et al. (1987) reported Cheiloneurus  ? elegans  as a hyperparasitoid of Phenacoccus manihoti  via Anagyrus lopezi  in Africa, but this identification has apparently never been confirmed. Eupelmus elegans Dalman 1820  , is a junior of C. elegans ( Noyes 2001)  , which led Noyes (2001) to mistakenly record Rhyacionia buoliana  as a host of this species, based on the report of Millan de De Santis & De Santis (1960). However, the host record in that paper referred to Eupelmus elegans Blanchard 1942  .

flaccus ( Walker 1847: 21)  ( Encyrtus  )

Type. BMNH

Distribution. N (Alpine, Contra Costa, Inyo, Marin, Monterey, Sacramento, Sonoma, Stanislaus)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of undetermined Cicadellidae  ; Megamelus proserpina  via Echthrodelphax fairchildii  , Haplogonatopus vitiensis  , Pseudogonatopus hospes 

Remarks. This species was described from material collected in Ohio, and has become established in Hawaii.

inimicus Compere 1925: 297 

Type. USNM

Distribution. W (Alameda, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Stanislaus, Solano, Tulare, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Ceroplastes  sp., Physokermes insignicola  , Saissetia oleae  via Metaphycus lounsburyi  , M. physokermis  ; NEW: Amonostherium lichtensioides  , Lecanodiaspis rufescens  , Pulvinaria mesembryanthemi  via Diversinervus elegans  , Microterys nietneri  (all UCRC)

Remarks. Specimens of a Cheiloneurus  species near inimicus  were collected from Fresno and Tehama counties ( EMEC), Marin County ( RLZC) and San Bernardino County, the latter having emerged from a gall on a Quercus  sp. ( Fagaceae  ) ( UCRC). McCoy & Selhime (1970) reported this species as a primary parasitoid of S. oleae  based on the lack of host remains, but Rosen (1981) corrected this, pointing out that hyperparasitoids can consume their entire host.

lineascapus Gahan 1910: 207 

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Napa, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Kermes nigropunctatus  , Saissetia oleae  via Metaphycus lounsburyi  ; NEW: Radiococcus kelloggii  ( EMEC)

Remarks. The host record of a Kermes  sp. on lilac ( Oleaceae  ) given in the original description is probably a misidentification, since as far as is known, Kermes  spp. are restricted to Quercus  spp.

noxius Compere 1925: 302 

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Stanislaus  )

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Coccus hesperidum  , Saissetia coffeae  , S. oleae  via Diversinervus elegans  , Metaphycus lounsburyi  , M. luteolus  , M. stanleyi  , Microterys nietneri 

Remarks. This species was accidentally established in Hawaii ( Beardsley 1976). In nature, this species is probably restricted to S. oleae  / M. lounsburyi  —all other host records are from laboratory rearings. Weseloh (1969) reported this species appears to be able to discriminate between encyrtid and aphelinid primary parasitoids in the scale host.


Remarks. In addition to the species listed above, I have seen specimens that appear to represent an additional 10 morphospecies present in the state


University of California, Riverside


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of Newcastle


Essig Museum of Entomology


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections












Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833

Zuparko, Robert L. 2015


Compere 1925: 297


Compere 1925: 302


Gahan 1910: 207

flaccus (

Walker 1847: 21

elegans (

Dalman 1820: 151