Synergus changtitangi Melika & Schwéger, 2015

Schwéger, Szabina, Melika, George, Tang, Chang-Ti, Bihari, Péter, Bozsó, Miklós, Stone, Graham N., Nicholls, James A. & Pénzes, Zsolt, 2015, New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Synergus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic, Zootaxa 3999 (4), pp. 451-497 : 466-469

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3999.4.1

publication LSID


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scientific name

Synergus changtitangi Melika & Schwéger

sp. nov.

Synergus changtitangi Melika & Schwéger , new species

Figs 30 View FIGURES 30 – 36 –42

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: TAIWAN (TWT491) Nantou Co., Mt. Songshu, Qingliu, Renai Township, ex Quercus serrata , 12. III. 2011. 24°04’50.35”N, 120°57’47.16”E, 870 m, ex stem swelling multilocular galls (TWTs13) em. 18.III.2011., leg. Chang-Ti Tang.

Thirteen female and 15 male PARATYPES: 7 females and 12 males: TAIWAN (TWT491) Nantou Co., Mt. Songshu, Qingliu, Renai Township, ex Quercus serrata , 12. III. 2011. 24°04’50.35”N, 120°57’47.16”E, 870 m, ex stem swelling multilocular galls (TWTs13) em. 18.III.2011., leg. Chang-Ti Tang; 2 females: TAIWAN (TWT479) Nantou Co., Mt. Songshu, Meiyuan, Renai Township, ex Quercus serrata , 5. III. 2011. 24°04’50.78”N, 120°57’47.57”E, 872 m, ex swelling at the base of bud (TWTs13) em. 18. III. 2011., leg. Chang-Ti Tang; 4 females and 3 males: TAIWAN (TWT490) Nantou Co., Mt. Songshu, Meiyuan, Renai Township, ex Quercus serrata , 25. II. 2011. 24°04’50.78”N, 120°57’47.57”E, 872 m, ex swelling at the base of bud (TWTs13) em. 18. III. 2011., leg. Chang-Ti Tang.

The female holotype, 5 female and 6 male paratypes are deposited in NCHU, 3 female and 3 male paratypes in USNM and 5 female and 6 male paratypes in PHMB.

Etymology. The species is named in honour of Mr. Chang-Ti Tang (Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan), whom with we have a long fruitfull cooperation in the research of Cynipidae of Taiwan.

Diagnosis. Synergus changtitangi most closely resembles S. khazani and diagnostic characters given for the differentiation of S. khazani from S. japonicus and S. gifuensis are true for this species also. In S. changtitangi frontal carinae are weak, usually reach lateral ocelli, sometimes present only on a short distance from the torulus, extending to 1/2 –2/3 of the distance to ocellus ( Fig. 30, 33 View FIGURES 30 – 36 ); the female head is robust from dorsal view ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 30 – 36 ) and rounded in frontal view ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 30 – 36 ); F 1 in the male antenna is very slightly expanded ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 30 – 36 ), while in S. khazani frontal carinae are strong, uniformly thick, always reach lateral ocelli, the head is transverse in dorsal view and quadrangular in frontal view ( Figs 91–96 View FIGURES 91 – 98 ), F 1 in the male antenna strongly expanded ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 91 – 98 ). In S. khazani and S. changtitangi the posterior band of micropunctures on the syntergite is broad, dorsally extending to 1/3 of its length (Figs 42, 105–106), while in S. abei the posterior band of micropunctures on the syntergite is narrow, dorsally extending to 1/5–1/7 of its length ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 9 – 15 )

Description. FEMALE. Head and mesosoma black to very dark brown; antenna brown, mouthparts, maxillar and labial palps light brown; legs reddish brown with black coxae and hind tibia; wings with yellowish brown venation; 1st metasomal tergite always dark brown, syntergite dark brown, dorsally always darker; hypopygium always lighter than rest of metasoma.

Head coriaceous, rounded in frontal view, 1.2 times as broad as high, slightly broader than mesosoma, 2.1 times as broad as long in dorsal view. Lower face, malar space, and gena behind eye with dense white setae, row of setae present along inner margin of eye, postgena without setae around occipital foramen; posterior areas aside hypostoma with dense setae. Eye 1.6 times as high as length of malar space. Malar sulcus absent, strong striae radiating from clypeus, reaching eye and toruli. Clypeus very small, smoothly joins central area of lower face, with striae, slightly impressed, ventrally straight, not emarginate; epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line indistinct, anterior tentorial pits small, distinct. Lower face with distinct numerous striae radiating from clypeus and extending to lower level of toruli and eyes. Frons delicately coriaceous aside of strong frontal carinae, with numerous delicate punctures between frontal carinae; frontal carina weak, sometimes hardly or not traceable at lateral ocellus or extending to 1/2–2/3 of distance to lateral ocellus; interocellar area with punctures. Transfacial distance 1.2 times as long as height of eye; distance between inner margin of eye and antennal torulus shorter than diameter of torulus; diameter of torulus 1.5 times as long as distance between toruli. POL 1.7 times as long as OOL and 2.1 times as long as LOL; length of lateral ocellus slightly smaller than length of OOL. Vertex dull rugose, with distinct, numerus, deep punctures, with few white setae. Occiput smooth, shiny. Gena not broadened behind eye in frontal view, dull rugose, with some white setae. Postgenal bridge reduced to long, narrow median strip; postgenal sulci united well before reaching hypostoma; posterior tentorial pit distinct, area around occipital foramen wellimpressed, smooth. Antenna with 12 flagellomeres, pedicel 1.6 times as long as broad, F1 1.2 times as long as F2 and 2.0 times as long as pedicel; F2=F3, F12 1.4 times as long as F11.

Mesosoma 1.2 times as long as high in lateral view. Sides of pronotum sharply angled in dorsal view, laterally with some strong short interrupted rugae, area between them weakly coriaceous or almost smooth. Propleuron alutaceous with some transverse striae and short white setae. Mesoscutum nearly as long as broad measuring along anterior edge of tegulae, with numerous whitish setae, uniformly dull rugose, with short interrupted strong transverse rugae, especially between notauli. Notaulus complete, reaching pronotum, uniformly broad and deep, with smooth bottom. Anterior parallel lines indistinct, hardly traceable. Parapsidal lines very narrow, smooth, extending to half length of mesoscutum; distinct parascutal carina present, reaches pronotum; median mesoscutal line deeply impressed in posterior half, extending to 2/3 of mesoscutum. Dorsoaxillar area very finely coriaceous, with micropunctures; lateroaxillar area joins dorsoaxillar area at acute angle. Mesoscutellum slightly longer than broad, uniformly dull rugose. Scutellar foveae transverse, deeply impressed, with rugose and glabrous bottom, separated by distinct narrow central carina, well-delimited posteriorly. Mesopectus with transverse parallel longitudinal striae, with smooth and glabrous area between striae. Metapleural sulcus reaches posterior margin of mesopectus in upper 1/3 of its height. Propodeum coriaceous, with dense short white setae laterally and centrally; lateral propodeal carinae distinct, uniformly thin, nearly straight; central propodeal area delicately coriaceous, with central longitudinal carina and dense setae. Metascutellum smooth, much shorter than smooth ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, with few setae; propodeal spiracle transversely ovate, with strong raised carina along anterior border. Nucha with longitudinal parallel rugae dorsally and laterally.

Fore wing veins pale brown, margin with long cilia; radial cell closed, 2.4–2.6 times as long as broad; Rs and R1 slightly curved, areolet present. Legs with short white setae, tarsal claws with distinct basal lobe.

Metasoma equal in length to head+mesosoma and 1.3 times as long as high in lateral view. First metasomal tergite with longitudinal parallel rugae dorsally and laterally. Syntergite with few white setae anterolaterally, smooth, shiny, glabrous; posterodorsally not or very weakly incised, with band of delicate micropunctures which extending to ventral edge and to 1/5 of metasoma dorsal length. Subsequent tergites and hypopygium micropunctate; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium short with few short white setae ventrally. Body length 2.8–3.6 mm (n =10).

MALE. Similar to female, antenna with 13 flagellomeres, F1 very weakly expanded apically, 1.3 times as long as F2. Body length 2.4–3.2 mm (n = 5).

Biology. This species was reared from undescribed multilocular stem swelling-like galls (TWTs13) ( Fig. 157 View FIGURES 145 – 157 ) collected from Q. serrata . Adults emerged during March.

Distribution. Currently known from Taiwan (Nantou County).


National Chung Hsing University


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History













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