Canarium globosum Daly, Raharim. & Federman, 2015

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 310-312

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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scientific name

Canarium globosum Daly, Raharim. & Federman

sp. nov.

Canarium globosum Daly, Raharim. & Federman View in CoL , sp. nov.

( Figs 4 View FIG ; 15 View FIG )

Small to large trees, leaves 3-5-jugate, the fruit subglobose to (ob)ovoid, smooth and glossy; distinguished from C. galokense Daly, Raharim. & Federman , sp. nov., C. betamponae Daly, Raharim. & Federman , sp. nov., C. manongarivum Daly, Raharim. & Federman , sp. nov., and C. subsidarium Daly, Raharim. & Federman , sp. nov. principally by the leaflet apex rounded to slightly emarginate, seldom abruptly and broadly short-acuminate, the acumen 0-2 (4) mm long (vs usually with acumen 2-10 mm long in the others).

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Toamasina, 5-12 km SW of Maroantsetra along Route Nationale 5, 10 m elev., 15°30’S, 49°39’E, 28.XI.1987, G. E. Schatz, J. F. Villiers & J. Klackenberg 1807 (holo-, NY!; iso-, MO, P[P00501644]!, TAN) GoogleMaps .

PARATYPI. — Madagascar. Antsiranana, Vohémar / Iharana, Fanambana , Forêt d’Analalava , Antsoha , 13°35’37”S, 49°59’11”E, 12.XI.2001, R. Randrianaivo, J. Andriantiana, H. Razafindrabe, A. Ratodimanana, T. Ratafindrabeaza, J. R. Rakoto, T. Jaohindy & Achille 746 ( MO) GoogleMaps . Toamasina, Analanjirofo, Ambanizana, Parc National Masoala , 250m, 15°38’36”S, 49°58’11”E, 17.I.2006, D. C. Daly, J. Raharimampionona, J. Razanatsoa, J. Aridy & Senario 12967 ( NY, TEF) GoogleMaps ; Atsinanana, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona , 400-600 m, 17°54’58”S, 49°12’10”E, 15.II.2008, T. Treuer, S. Federman & J. Sylvain 8 ( NY) GoogleMaps . Toliara, NW ofTaolagnaro, Andohahela Réserve Intégrale, Parcelle I, N of Isaka Ivondro, 250-500 m, 24°45’S, 46°51’E, 17-21.XII.1993, S. Malcomber 2625 (K, MO, NY, P, TAN) GoogleMaps ; Fénérive Est, Ampasimaningoro, Tampolo , 10 m, 17°17’22”S, 49°24’31”E, 30.VI.2001, J. Rabenantoandro, R. Razakamalala, H. Razafindrainibe, R. Ludovic & F. Joma 532 ( NY, US) GoogleMaps ; Taolagnaro, Ambahibe, Isaka-Ivondro , Parcelle I de la Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d’Andohahela, 0-500 m, 24°47’S, 46°50’E, 10-27.IX.1993, B. Randriamampionona 627 ( MO, NY, P, TAN) GoogleMaps ; Anosy, Taolagnaro, Isaka-Ivondro , Forêt d’Andohahela (Parcelle I), 500 m, 24°45’30”S, 46°51’47”E, 25.XI.2002, R. Randrianaivo & Justin 841 ( MO) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium globosum , sp. nov. is one of the more broadly distributed species of the genus in Madagascar, known from Fort-Dauphin in the south to Vohémar in the North, occurring in littoral forest, dry forest, and humid forest, 0-500 m elevation. Flowering Jan., fruiting throughout the year.

ETYMOLOGY. — The specific epithet refers to the globose fruit shape. COMMON NAMES AND USES. — Tsiramiramy; ramy mena, ramytsitsihy, sandramy.

The resin is used to kill mites on the feathers and skin of chickens (famonoana tsingongotran’akoho), also used for caulking canoes, illumination, and religious (tromba) ceremonies.


Trees, reproductive size (5) 10-30 m × 14-70 cm diam, trunk with thick low plank buttresses extending up to 4 m from base. Outer bark gray, thick, irregularly cracked, sparsely lenticellate, shed as irregular plates; inner bark light tan and reddish. Resin clear or white. Leaves 10.2-30 cm long, 3-5 (6)-jugate; petiole 2.6-9 cm long, petiole and rachis with sparse to scattered, fine, appressed pale golden hairs to 0.2 mm long; stipules (4)8-23(35) mm from petiole insertion, 3-8 mm long, orbicular, (thickly) chartaceous, sometimes constricted at base, often drying revolute and ligulate, outer surface with ascending pale golden hairs to 0.1 mm long, inner with dense, flexuous, ferrugineous hairs to 0.15 mm long, the scar 1-2 mm long; basal petiolules 3-7 mm long, other laterals 3-12 mm long, terminal one 12-32 mm long, petiolules usually narrowly and deeply canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli sometimes conspicuous; basal leaflets 2.2-6.1 × 1.1-3.3 cm, orbicular to broadly & slightly (ob)ovate, other laterals 3.4-9.6 × 1.3- 4.2 cm, oblong or less often oblong-elliptic or ovate, terminal one 3.6-7.5 × 1.7-3.8 cm, (broadly) obovate to oblanceolate, leaflet apex rounded to slightly emarginate or less often abruptly and broadly short-acuminate, the acumen 0-2 (4) mm long; base symmetrical to slightly oblique, truncate to obtuse; margin flat; leaflets chartaceous, drying (dark) grayish brown or brown, glossy on both surfaces; secondary vein framework weakly festooned-brochidodromous, secondaries in 8-10 pairs, discolorous, spreading to almost straight, spacing essentially uniform, angle sub-perpendicular, increasing slightly toward apex; perpendicular intersecondaries present or less often perpendicular epimedial tertiaries, intercostal tertiaries irregular-reticulate, quaternaries regular-polygonal; on abaxial side all veins narrowly prominent, surface glabrous or with thick appressed pale hairs to 0.1 mm long along midvein and across surface, on adaxial side all veins narrowly prominulous or prominent but midvein sunk in a groove, surface glabrous. Staminate inflorescences 17-30 cm long, secondary axes to 12 cm long, axes with dense ferrugineous capitate glands, also sparse to dense flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.2 mm long; subglabrescent in fruit; bracts 1.5- 1.6 mm long, apex acute, shorter than the buds, with thick ascending ferrugineous hairs to 0.05 mm long; bracteoles c. 1.2 mm long, lanceolate to subulate, shorter than mature buds; pedicel c. 2.5 × 0.5 mm, with dense ferrugineous capitate glands, also sparse flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.2 mm long. Staminate buds (mature) 3.3-3.4 mm long; calyx 1.4-1.5 × 2.6-2.7 mm overall, taller than ovariodisk, cupular, cream-colored, the lobes 0.4-0.5 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate, pubescence as on inflorescence but denser; petals 3.3-3.4 × 1.5-1.7 mm, exposed part longer than calyx, oblong, apex obtuse with an inflexed apiculum 0.3-0.4 mm long, fleshy, abaxial surface with dense retrorse whitish hairs to 0.1 mm long; stamens inserted at base of ovariodisk, the antesepalous stamens 2.6 mm long with anthers 1.4 mm long, the antepetalous stamens 2.2 mm long with anthers 1.2 mm long, the anthers oblong-lanceolate in dorsiventral view, oblong in lateral view, with apiculate connective; ovariodisk 0.25-0.45 mm tall, 0.8-1.1 mm thick, discoid, apex craggy. Pistillate inflorescences to 11.5 cm long, secondary axes to 5 cm long; 3.6-5.7 cm × 0.9-1.3 mm diam. Pistillate flowers 5.6-6.2 mm long; calyx 2.8-4.5 × 3.2-4.4 mm overall, reaching the base of stigma, slightly urceolate, fleshy, lobes 0.6-1 mm long, depressed-deltate, abaxial surface with dense erect to ascending golden to ferrugineous hairs to 0.2 mm long; petals 4.6 × 1.4 mm, exposed part of corolla shorter than calyx, narrowly obovate, apex obtuse, slightly spread- ing, abaxial surface with dense ascending pale golden hairs to 0.15 mm long; staminodes inserted on rim of a shallow hypanthium, 2-2.3 mm long, anthers 1-1.3 mm long, lanceolate; pistil 3-3.3 × 1 mm, the ovary narrowly ovoid and substipitate, style 0.7-1.1 mm long, stigmatal area 0.6-08 mm long, capitate. Fruiting pedicel 4-9 × 2.5-3.6 mm, cylindrical to slightly clavate, fruiting calyx 2-3 mm long, spreading to patent, lobes not distinct, abaxial surface with scattered round raised lenticels, adaxial surface with dense appressed golden hairs to 0.1 mm long. Fruits 2-3.8 × 2-2.5 cm, subglobose to (ob)ovoid, sometime broadly so, surface smooth and usually glossy (appearing foveolate under 40 × magnification), green to brown or dark brownish violet, glabrescent, mesocarp thin (dries only slightly wrinkled).


Canarium globosum , sp. nov. is part of a complex of species including C. galokense , sp. nov., C. betamponae , sp. nov., C. manongarivum , sp. nov., and C. subsidarium , sp. nov. that have 3-5-jugate leaves, relatively small leaflets that are often oblong, and relatively small fruits. They are contrasted in Table 1 under C. betamponae , sp. nov.


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural


University of Stellenbosch

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