Zoosphaerium micropiligerum, Wesener, 2009
Wesener, Thomas, 2009, Unexplored richness: discovery of 31 new species of Giant Pill-Millipedes endemic to Madagascar, with a special emphasis on microendemism (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida), Zootaxa 2097 (1), pp. 1-134: 115-118
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Zoosphaerium micropiligerum , new species
Studied material: Holotype: 1 M (18 mm long), FMMC 5399. Locus typicus: Madagascar, Province de Toliara, RNI Andohahela , parcel 1, 20.0 km SE Andranodambo, 24°33.7'S, 46°43.3'E, montane rainforest, 1875 m, coll. S. Goodman, pitfall traps, 27.xi.–5.xii.1995. GoogleMaps
Paratypes: 1 M, FMMC 5399, same data as holotype; 8 M, 2 F GoogleMaps , FMMC 5416, RNI Andohahela, parcel 1, camp 4, 15.0 km NW Eminiminy, 24°34.2'S, 46°43.9'E, rainforest, 1500 m, coll. S. Goodman 17–27.XI.1995 GoogleMaps .
Other material: 5 M, 1 F CAS BLF 5013, Parc National d'Andohahela , Col du Sedro, 3.8 km 113° ESE Mahamavo, 37.6 km 341° NNW Tolagnaro, 24°45'50"S, 46°45'6"E, 900 m, montane rainforest, coll. Fisher, Griswold et al., pitfall trap, 21–25.I.2002 GoogleMaps .
Distribution: This species is only known from the montane rainforest at Andohahela (Fig. 77).
Diagnosis: Small and elongated, circa 20 mm long. Color strongly faded in alcohol, shiny. Texture of tergites with small grooves and hairs. Anal shield in males covered completely with very short hairs. Disc of antenna with four apical cones (Fig. 79A). Antenna unusual long, reaching up to fifth tergite. Antennomeres 1 and 2 with sclerotized teeth. All antennomeres without groove (Fig. 79B). Movable finger of posterior telopods strongly curved, with five sclerotized spines (Fig. 78E); posterior side with up to eight sclerotized teeth (Fig. 78F). Fixed finger strongly curved, long and slender, basally with large membranous lobe and sclerotized spine (Fig. 78E). Two long stridulation ribs on male harp (Fig. 78C) and two on each half of female washboard. Anal shield with two locking carinae, first short, second 3 or 4 times longer than first. Females immature.
Similar species: The general shape of telopods is similar to those of Zoosphaerium piligerum ( de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897) and Z. pseudopiligerum , n. sp.. The much smaller size, unusual long antennae with only four apical cones and differences in the telopods identifies Z. micropiligerum as a new species.
Description: Body length: Males (10 specimens): length up to 18 mm, width of thoracic shield up to 7.1 mm, height of thoracic shield up to 4.9 mm. Female (1 specimen): length 16 mm, width 7.9 mm, height 4.6 mm.
FIGURE 078. Zoosphaerium micropiligerum n. sp., holotype, A: first left coxa and prefemur with stigmatic plate; B: second left coxa with gonopore, posterior view; C: left half of anterior telopod, anterior view; D: last three podomeres of anterior telopod, posterior view; E: posterior telopod, anterior view; F: posterior telopod, posterior view. Abbreviations: cav = cavity; Cx = coxa; Pre = prefemur; s-p = sclerotized spot; scl-t = sclerotized teeth; SR = stridulation rib; St = stigmatic plate. Scale bar = 1 mm.
FIGURE 079. Zoosphaerium micropiligerum n. sp., paratype, SEM, A: antenna, apical view on disc; B: antenna, lateral view; C: right mandible, mesal view. Abbreviations: 3iT = 3 inner teeth; Co = condylus; eT = external tooth; mp = molar plate; pL = pectinate lamella.
Habitus: Especially males are remarkably long and slender.
Coloration: Faded in alcohol. Body with traces of pitch–black coloration. Appendages whitish, sometimes with traces of olive green.
Head: Eyes with more than 50 ocelli.
Antennae: Unusually long, reaching back to 5th tergite. Length of antennomeres: 1=2=3>4=5<6 (Fig. 79B), sixth antennomere longest, cylindrical, bearing disc with four sensory cones (Fig. 79A). First antennomere with neither groove nor sensilla basiconica (Fig. 79B). Sclerotized teeth at base of antennomeres 1 and 2 (Fig. 79B).
Mandible: Six rows of pectinate lamellae, number of teeth declining proximally (Fig. 79C). Molar plate with deep groove (Fig. 79C). Condylus well-rounded (Fig. 79C).
Gnathochilarium: Lateral of palpi circa five sensory cones, located together. Depression on posterior side of palpi without sensory cones.
Collum: Median part of collum glabrous.
Thoracic shield: Surface similar to tergites.
Tergites: Posterior margin of paratergites projecting posteriorly. Tergites covered with small pits and hair.
Endotergum: Inner section with broad spines and few, isolated bristles (Fig. 88A). Between marginal ridge and inner area without special structures. Externally single row of very short marginal bristles, protruding up to 1/3 of space towards tergite margin (Fig. 88A).
Anal shield: Neither bell-shaped nor tapered. At least in males covered with numerous hairs standing in minute impressions. Underside carries two well-developed black locking carinae, anterior short, posterior carina 3.5–4 times longer than first.
Legs: First tarsi with up to four, second with up to seven, third with eight long ventral spines. First two leg pairs with only weakly curved claws and without apical spine. Tarsi of legs 3–21 with curved claws, eight ventral spines and apical spine. In 9th leg, tarsi 4.2 times longer than wide.
Stigmatic plates: First plate, lobe weakly curved, short and stout (Fig. 78A).
Female: Immature, with two stridulation ribs on each side of washboard.
Male sexual characters: Male gonopore large, covered with huge, sclerotized, undivided and rounded plate (Fig. 78B). Anal shield completely covered with numerous short hairs.
Anterior telopods (Figs 78C, D): Harp with two stridulation ribs, both straight and long. Lateral rib longer than inner rib, reaching from basal to apical part of first podomere. Second podomere process lobe-like and little curved with rounded edges, reaching almost as high as third podomere, apically with sclerotized spots and basally with one spine. Third podomere cylindrical, almost as wide as second podomere process. Cavity mesally with numerous sclerotized spots and five small spines, spines located basally, medially and largest two apically closely towards tip. Tip of third podomere with circular, sclerotized spot.
Posterior telopods: Movable finger strongly curved. Hollowed-out inner margin with up to five smaller, sclerotized spines, two located at its tip; posterior aspect with 8 sclerotized spots. Fixed finger slender, far shorter than movable finger. Fixed finger tip strongly curved, anterior side basally with single, large membranous lobe and sclerotized spine, around its tip with numerous small, sclerotized spots. Movable finger glabrous, first and second podomere almost glabrous, on both sides with some isolated hair. Inner horns of syncoxite apically curved. Tips sharp, whole horns covered with numerous short hairs.
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