Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G., 2012, 3372, Zootaxa 3372, pp. 1-265: 189-194

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Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead


Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead  

( Figs 9, 86, 87, 88; Map fig. 105)

Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead, 1906: 74   ( nomen nudum   ).

Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead, 1908a: 38   .

Ceroplastes coniformis Newstead, 1913: 72   . Syn. nov.

Material examined. Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead   : Cameroon, ex Busse colln, No. 3661 ( BMNH): 1/3? adult females, probably rather old, all very broken and badly cleared. Most characters could be found on 1 or more of the pieces. This is clearly part of the type series as it has the Accession no. 3661, which refers to the collection from Bamba, Cameroon ( Newstead 1908a)   .

Note: the original description states ( Newstead, 1908a) that the type series was collected in the Cameroon at Soppo (3.iii.1905) and Bamba (Feb. 1905), on cacao ( Theobroma sp.   )  

Ceroplastes coniformis Newstead   : Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Uganda: Left label: Col. Office / Ent. Res. Com. T.A. / No. 2823 / on Ficus sp.   ? / Botanic Gardens?Entebbe / 16/XI/12 / C.C. Gowdey / Newstead No. 1/ 62; and right label: Ceroplastes   / coniformis / Newstead / Cotype ♀ / BM 1945, 121 ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair, mounted sideways).  

Paralectotype ♀: as for lectotype ( BMNH): 1/1 (poor, mounted sideways) + 7/uncertain (mainly poor) + immatures   .

Also: Côte d’Ivoire, Tai, on Ficus lutea, G. Couturier   ( MNHN #8821): 1/1 (good); Tai, on Ochthocosmus mirabilis   , 17.i.1978, G. Couturier ( MNHN #7509): 2/3 (good-fair; as C. quadrilineatus   ); Tai, Sanbé, on Theobroma cacao   , 19.i.1985, G. Couturier ( MNHN # 10314): 2/2 (good-fair; as C. quadrilineatus   ); Bingerville, cacaoyer ( T. cacao   ), -. ii.1934, Castelli ( MNHN #14789): 6/6 (good-poor). Uganda, Entebbe, on Ficus sp.   , 21.ii.1913, H. Hargreaves ( BMNH): 1/2 (poor); Kampala, on Annona (Anona) muricata   , 29.iii.1934, H. Hargreaves ( BMNH): 3/4 (poor). Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eala, on Parinari sp.   , 9.iii.1936, J. Ghesquière #4025 ( MNHN, TERV): 7/16 (good-poor); Tumba, on Annona muricata   leaves, 10.ii.1921, H. Schouteden ( MNHN #5883): 10/20 (good-poor; also present in this collection was a single C. lamborni   ); Eala, on ‘arbuste indigine’ (almost certainly “arbuste indegène”, indigenous tree), 21.viii.1914, R. Mayné ( BMNH): 2/6 (fair-good; labelled Ceroplastes maynée   sp., a manuscript name).

Note. Because the material of C. theobromae   was very poor, the following description is of C. coniformis   (which is here considered to be a synonym) plus some specimens on Parinari sp.   , with the data for the type material of C. theobromae   in (..) brackets where available. The data in [..] brackets are those given for C. theobromae   by Newstead (1908a). With regard to C. coniformis   , all of the available type specimens were mounted sideways and so the actual shape is unknown. It is thought likely to be something like the figure.

Unmounted material. C. theobromae   . "Test of adult female reddish pink, darker in older examples, nucleated; margin with two large bilateral, stout, white appendages; caudal process uncovered at the tip; posterior extremity with two large mammiform swellings. Length 4–5; width 3.50–4.75 mm." ( Newstead, 1908a: 38).

Unmounted material. C. coniformis   . Female test "thin and distinctly cone-shaped, with the apex bluntly pointed; not divided into plates, but with a more or less distinct, minute, ovate patch of secretion at the apex of the test, and in the more perfect individuals some small white patches of secretion over the stigmatic clefts. Colour translucent yellowish-brown, sometimes with indefinite darker markings due evidently to foreign matter. Height 3.9–4.7 mm; greatest diameter at base 2.8–4 mm." ( Newstead, 1913: 72).

Mounted material. Body probably quite broad and convex; stigmatic clefts quite deep; lateral tubercles small. Caudal process well developed and dorsal, probably forming a shallow cone. Length perhaps 1.3–4.0 (2.25) [4–5] mm, total width 1.0 (1.3–?) [3.5–4.75] mm.

Dorsum. Derm unsclerotised in young specimens becoming lightly to fairly heavily sclerotised at maturity; caudal process heavily sclerotised and almost round; length of process about 0.35–0.95 (0.6) mm; width when squashed flat about 0.4–1.0 (0.65) mm. Derm apparently with 7 or 8 clear areas, dorsal clear area possibly occasionally absent; all with setae and simple microducts. Dorsal setae each generally bluntly spinose but some rather pointed (particularly on Parinari sp.   ); subequal to width of basal socket or clearly longer, length 3–7 (3–6) µm, width of basal socket 4.5–5.0 (3–5) µm;;rather abundant throughout, particularly on mid-dorsal clear area; also on caudal process. Dorsal pores: (i) loculate microducts of rusci-type most abundant, each about 5–6 (5–6) µm widest; those with 2 satellite loculi scarce; pores with 3 or more loculi not noted; frequent throughout but absent from all clear areas; perhaps most abundant in a broad band around each group of stigmatic setae and in wax-plate lines; and (ii) simple microducts rather variable in appearance, some appearing to have a sclerotised orifice, others without; present in clear areas but sparse (possibly throughout on Parinari sp.   ). Preopercular pores present, with about 14 – 25 (30) in a narrow band 1–2 pores wide around entire anterior margin of anal plates, extending to each corner. Anal plates about as wide as long; anterior and posterior margins rounded; length of plates 165–185 (178–185) µm, width of single plate 170–210 (both plates combined 153–165) µm, each with 3 or 4 basal sockets of dorsal setae (number unknown) plus a short seta on apex. Anal tube short, anal ring close to anterior margin of anal plates; anal ring setae 140–150 µm long.

Margin. Marginal setae stoutly setose, each about 11–20 (16–18) µm long; rather few, frequency uncertain but perhaps 6–8 (8) anteriorly between eyespots, and (on each side) 2 or 3 (1) between eyespots and anterior stigmatic area, 6–7 between stigmatic areas and an unknown number on either side of abdomen; each anal lobe perhaps with 3 longer setae, each 30–70 µm long. Stigmatic clefts quite deep, each with a group of roundly to slightly elongate conical stigmatic setae extending in a rather narrow group onto dorsum; each group about as long as wide, and often rather triangular in shape, with about 32–52 (32–38) stigmatic setae; most setae 8–13 (7–10) µm long and 7–10 (6.5–9) µm wide but each group generally with a noticeably larger seta located towards dorsal apex of group, each about 15–23 (14–16) µm long and 10–13 (12–13) µm wide. Eyespots each about 25–30 (30) µm wide.

Venter. Derm entirely membranous. Pregenital disc-pores abundant around genital opening and across preceding segment; with very few or absent in segment V; absent more anteriorly. Spiracular disc-pores in broad bands, widest near margin; with at least 70–100 in each band (those on type specimens of C. coniformis   apparently narrower with fewer pores). Ventral microducts showing nothing distinctive but rather few medially. Ventral tubular ducts clearly absent anteriorly in cephalic region, but with 0 or 1 in segment V associated with anogenital fold. Submarginal setae probably more abundant than marginal setae, each probably about 8–10 µm long.”

“Antennae each with 6 segments; segment III with or without a small pseudo-articulation; total length 225–390 (240–285) µm. Clypeolabral shield about 160–185 (165) µm long. Spiracles: width of peritremes 60–80 (80) µm. Legs well developed, each either without a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis or a very small one; each claw without a denticle; claw digitules different, 1 distinctly narrower than other, subequal in length to tarsal digitules; dimensions of metathoracic legs (µm): coxa 95–125 (108); trochanter + femur 140–165 (147), tibia 75–105 (95), tarsus 62–80 (58), and claw 21–27 (21).

Discussion. Although the type specimens of C. theobromae   were extremely poor and it was not possible to illustrate this species from them, a few characters could be seen that, together, make a fairly diagnostic combination: (i) legs without a tibio-tarsal articulation; (ii) claw digitules clearly different; (iii) distribution of the stigmatic setae in a group extending dorsally away from a rather deep cleft; (iv) each stigmatic spine mainly rounded and almost as wide as long; (v) each group of stigmatic setae with a single slightly larger spine; (vi) anal plates rather rounded; (vii) dorsal loculate microducts of the rusci-type, those with 2 satellite loculi scarce, and (viii) caudal process dorsal and probably not very convex. On the basis of our present knowledge of C. theobromae   , C. coniformis   appears to be indistinguishable and is here synonymised with C. theobromae Newstead.   C. theobromae   is very similar to C. lamborni   . For a comparison, see under the latter species above. Strickland (1947) recorded C. theobromae   on “cacaoyer” ( Theobroma cacao   ) from Cameroon, although this material has not been seen in this study.

C. theobromae   is currently only known from Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, on Theobroma cacao   ( Sterculiaceae   ), Ficus sp.   ( Moraceae   ), Annona muricata   ( Annonaceae   ), Ochthocosmus mirabilis   ( Ixonanthaceae   ) and Parinari sp.   ( Chrysobalanaceae   ).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G. 2012

Ceroplastes coniformis

Newstead, R. 1913: 72

Ceroplastes theobromae

Newstead, R. 1908: 38

Ceroplastes theobromae

Newstead, R. 1906: 74