Pristiphora punctifrons (Thomson, 1871),
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|Pristiphora punctifrons (Thomson, 1871)|
Pristiphora punctifrons (Thomson, 1871) Figs 107, 138-140, 231
Nematus punctifrons Thomson, 1871: 111. Holotype ♀ (MZLU2014459) in MZLU, examined. Type locality: Fogelsång near Lund, Sweden.
Nematus platyceros Zaddach in Brischke, 1884: 135-136. Syntypes ♀♂ possibly destroyed ( Blank and Taeger 1998). Type locality: Gdańsk (=Danzig), Poland; East Prussia (now divided between Russia, Poland, and Lithuania); Scotland, United Kingdom, Sweden; Vienna, Austria. Synonymised with P. punctifrons by Konow (1902).
Pristiphora viridana Konow, 1902: 164 (key), 176-177. Lectotype ♀ (GBIF-GISHym3896; designated by Liston et al. 2006) in SDEI, examined. Type locality: Teschendorf, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Micronematus camtschatcalis Enslin, 1927: 376-377. Holotype ♀ (DEI-GISHym30136) in ZIN, examined. Type locality: Klyuchevskoye, Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Note. Synonymy by Conde (1934) is here accepted.
Nematus (Pristiphora) punctifrons ab. maculipleura Hellén, 1948a: 45. Not available. Infrasubspecific name.
Pristiphora aspericeps Lindqvist, 1960a: 37. Holotype ♀ (http://id.luomus.fi/GL.5216) in MZH, examined. Type locality: Tyrväntö, Kanta-Häme, Finland.
Pristiphora flavipicta Lindqvist, 1975: 14, syn. n. Holotype ♀ (DEI-GISHym20895) in MZH, examined. Type locality: near Murino, Tunkinsky District, Republic of Buryatia, Russia.
Pristiphora mongoloexigua Haris, 2002: 76-77, syn. n. Holotype ♂ (DEI-GISHym80346; http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5101081) in HNHM, examined. Type locality: Zaisan, Bogd Khan Mountain, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Pristiphora flavopleura Haris, 2002: 81, syn. n. Holotype ♀ (DEI-GISHym80355; http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5101099) in HNHM, examined. Type locality: Nukht, Bogd Khan Mountain, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Pristiphora mongolofausta Haris, 2003: 116-118, syn. n. Holotype ♀ (DEI-GISHym80354; http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5101090) in HNHM, examined. Type locality: Üyench District, Khovd Province, Mongolia.
Females of P. punctifrons can be distinguished from other species by having a very deep scopa of valvula 3 (Fig. 107), at least dorsally black coloration (except terga 9-10, which are usually pale), and minute subapical tooth of claws. Males, which seem to be very rare (we have seen only two), are best recognised by examining penis valves (see the Key). We do not treat viridana Konow (pale form) as a separate species from punctifrons Thomson (dark form), as the variation in the characters mentioned by Liston et al. (2006) is continuous. Holotypes of flavipicta Lindqvist and flavopleura Haris differ from pale forms of punctifrons only by having a largely pale mesepisternum (which is only slightly pale in one other studied specimen from Kazakhstan). This kind of variation can be considered intra-specific, as it is common in many other species of Pristiphora .
Based on COI barcode sequences, specimens of this species are divided between three BIN clusters (BOLD:AAU9246, BOLD:ACW2731, BOLD:ACB0668), which form a monophyletic group (Fig. 3). Minimal distances between these clusters are 1.68-2.57%. Based on nuclear data, maximum within species divergence is 0.9% (based on three specimens and NaK) and the nearest neighbour is 3.2% different ( P. geniculata , only NaK).
Rosa canina L. s. l. ( Lorenz and Kraus 1957, Savina and Chevin 2012), Rosa majalis Herrm. ( Kangas 1985, ex ovo rearing experiments by VV). Records from Betula ( Enslin 1918, 1919, Stritt 1952) (as P. viridana ) probably refer to P. alpestris ( Conde 1934) or P. albilabris .
Ovipositing experiment no. 9/1976: Finland, South Häme, Hämeenlinna, Aulanko. On 14.VI.1976 one captured female laid 3 eggs into teeth of unopened leaves of Rosa majalis . Larvae hatched on 18.VI.1976, four larval instars were observed. Their development was rapid and on 29.VI.1976 prepupae were seen. No extra moult after feeding.
Distribution and material examined.
Palaearctic, Nearctic. Specimens studied are from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia (Kamchatka Krai and Republic of Buryatia), Sweden, and USA.
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