Acronicta (Jocheaera) alni (Linnaeus, 1767)

Han, H. L. & Kononenko, V. S., 2010, New species of the genera Acronicta Ochsenheimer, 1816 and Craniophora Snellen, 1867 from China with notes on synonymy and checklist (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Acronictinae), Zootaxa 2678 (1), pp. 48-68: 53

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2678.1.2


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Acronicta (Jocheaera) alni (Linnaeus, 1767)


Acronicta (Jocheaera) alni (Linnaeus, 1767)  

( Figs. 3–6 View FIGURES 1–6 , 8, 10 View FIGURES 7–10 )

Phalaena alni (Linnaeus, 1758)   , Systema Naturae (Edn 10) 1: 501 (Type-locality: Europe).

Synonymy: degener [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775; intensiva Draudt, 1937; korealni Bryk, 1948; italica Berio, 1961   .

Bionomics. Meso-hygrophilous species, occurring in various woodland habitats, rather common in valleys with wet deciduous forest. Univoltine. Moths are on the wing June through August. Larvae are polyphagous on trees and shrubs, including Quercus   , Alnus   , Populus   , Betula   , Carpinus   , Corylus   , Ulmus   , Sorbus   , Prunus   , Malus   , Pyrus   , Crataegus   , Rosa   , Acer   . Overwinters as pupa.

Distribution ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 31–32 ). Eurasian, subboreal. Russia to Ural, through S Siberia to the Far East and Sakhalin. Europe, Near East, Caucasus, China (from North to Central), Korea, Japan.

Notes. In the course of identification of a new species we examined all available material of A. alni   from populations of north and central Europe, Ural, Siberia, Russian Far East, Korea, Japan, northeast and central China. The samples from different and distant populations showed high stability in external appearance and structure of genitalia throughout the entire geographic range. Apparently A. alni   has a continuous distribution throughout Eurasia. In China, the species has been reported from its north, northeast and central provinces, but not recorded in southwest (Yunnan Prov.). We believe A. alni   and the new species A. naxi   are allopatric. The taxon described from Korea as Acronicta alni korealni   is a synonym of A. alni ( Kononenko 1996)   , not differing from examined specimens from Far Eastern Russia, Siberia and Europe ( Figs. 3–6 View FIGURES 1–6 ). The type of Acronicta alni intensiva   described by Draudt (1950) from material collected by H. Höne in 1935 ("Nur 1 f vom Tapaishan im Tsiling, Sued-Shensi, Juni 1935 ") ( Draudt 1950) was not found in the ZFMK. However, we examined two topotype females specimens bearing the labels: “Tapaishan im Tsiling Sued-Shensi ca. 3000, 1700m. 25, 1936 H. Höne”. In our opinion these topotype specimens do not differ at the subspecific level from samples from Far East Russian, Siberian, European, north Chinese, Korean and Japanese populations. Consequently, we consider Acronicta alni intensiva   a synonym of A. alni   .

We also draw attention here to the manner in which Draudt’s specimen material is labeled and preserved. During the present study, in order to inventory the diversity of Noctuidae   in China, the second author examined the type specimens of the taxa described by Draudt (1937, 1950) in the subfamily Acronictinae   and other material from China in the Höne collection at ZFMK and the holotype of Acronicta cinerascens Kozhanchikov, 1950   in the collection of ZISP. In his study of noctuids from China Draudt (1937, 1950) described 24 taxa of Acronictinae   , including 20 taxa of species rank and 4 of subspecies rank. Draudt did not designate holotypes and paratypes, and in most cases he reported only locality and collecting data, sometime without year; in some cases (mostly in his 1950 publication) he reported exact number of specimens. The type specimens (mostly for species described in 1950) apparently were designated and indicated in the collection by Draudt as " Holotype ", " Allotype " or " Paratype " later on after publication. Among the taxa described by Draudt in 1937, only one was clearly stated in the original description to be based on a single specimen. Therefore most "types" of taxa described by Draudt should be considered syntypes except in cases where the new taxon was described from a single specimen. For most taxa, described by Draudt in 1937, the identification label for a series is supplied with an additional museum label "Type verloren" [type lost]. However, because the type material was not clearly indicated, we consider specimens bearing label data corresponding to the locality and year in the original description as plausible syntypes, and have used these for lectotypification. True “type” specimens of Draudt usually are supplied with several labels: (1) a printed label with locality data, year, and name of collector; (2) an orange-red handwritten by Draudt label " Holotype ", " Allotype " or " Paratype," and name of taxon; (3) a white identification label handwritten by Draudt. Where genitalia have been dissected, another kind of label (e.g., "Preparation No Ho 144 Ch. Boursin") is attached to the specimen.