Neoephydra dasycephala, Mathis, Wayne N. & Marinoni, Luciane, 2016
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9. Neoephydra dasycephala sp. nov.
Figs. 50–52View FIGURES 50 – 52, Map 9
Diagnosis. Specimens of this species could easily be confused with those of either congener of this species group but may be distinguished by the following characters: larger, body length up to 5.00 mm; legs mostly grayish green, densely microtomentose, but with ventral surface of at least hindtibia somewhat rufous; medial portion of scutum brown, mostly microtomentose, subshiny vittae less distinct, as in specimens of N. mallonota ; and male terminalia with distinctive conformation. Moderately large shore flies, body length 4.30 –5.00 mm (averaging 4.63 mm); grayish blue or grayish green to brown dorsally, progressively paler, grayer toward ventral surface.
Head: Head ratio 0.57–0.60; frontal ratio 0.47–0.52; mesofrons with dark greenish blue, metallic luster, more or less densely pilose; ocellar triangle and lateral margins of frons mostly concolorous, microtomentose, brownish gray to charcoal gray, more charcoal colored toward anterior margins; area between fronto-orbital seta insertions and eye less microtomentose, grayish green, slightly subshiny, bare. Antenna unicolorous, microtomentose, blackish brown to black; aristal length equal to combined length of pedicel and basal flagellomere. Facial ratio 0.76-0.81; face densely microtomentose, dark brown dorsally, gradually paler ventrally, grayish tan to nearly white. Eye ratio 0.96–0.99; gena-to-eye ratio 0.62–0.66; gena very high, coloration pale tannish white anteriorly, darker posteriorly with some faint grayish green or grayish blue tinges.
Thorax: Mostly microtomentose; scutum brown medially with paler, grayish blue margins, but with some faint, subshiny vittae. Anterior margin with 2 distinct, subshiny brown vittae which become grayer and duller from transverse suture backward; area laterad and mediad of subshiny anterior vittae darker brown, subshiny, and fused posteriorly; gray microtomentose lateral margins particularly evident from humeral callus posteriorly through notopleural region, more bluish and slightly subshiny posteriorly; dorsum of scutellum concolorous with posteriormost portion of scutum, subshiny with metallic brownish blue luster; lateral and apical margins grayish blue, duller; anepisternum brown along dorsal margin, gradually grayer toward ventral margin; other pleural areas mostly grayish tan, unicolorous. Wing mostly hyaline or with faint, grayish brown coloration; costal vein ratio 0.39–0.41; M vein ratio 0.89–0.92. Coxae grayish white to silvery; femora generally grayish green, densely microtomentose, concolorous; tibiae concolorous with femora but some specimens with rufous coloration on ventral surface, especially on hindleg; tarsi grayish black in freshly emerged specimens, paler, rufous in older specimens.
MAP 9. Distribution map for Neoephydra dasycephala sp. nov.
Abdomen: Unicolorous, microtomentose to subshiny, grayish green or grayish blue, often with some faint golden, metallic luster when viewed from posteroblique angle. Tergite 5 ( Fig. 50View FIGURES 50 – 52) of male forming equilateral triangle. Male terminalia ( Figs. 50–51View FIGURES 50 – 52): margins of epandrium from posterior view enlarged toward middle, with lateral prominences at juncture of surstyli with ventral margin of epandrium; posterior surstylar processes closely opposed basally, divergent apically; 2 other pairs of lateral, surstylar processes, basal pair with convergent orientation; aedeagus long, slender, crescent-shaped, tapered gradually to apex; phallapodeme well developed, almost as wide as long.
Type material. The holotype male is labeled “ 18 X 1965 [18 Oct 1965] Pusi [15 ° 26 'S, 69 ° 56 'W], PUNO PERU 250 Coll. J. C. Hitchcock, Jr./Ƌ/ HOLOTYPE Ƌ Neoephydra dasycephala Mathis USNM [red].” The holotype is directly pinned, is in excellent condition, and is deposited in the USNM. The allotype female and 10 paratypes (7 ♂, 3 ♀; USNM) bear the same locality label data as the holotype. Other paratypes are as follows: ARGENTINA. Jujuy: Cangrejillos (S La Quiaca; 22 ° 25 'S, 65 ° 34 'W; 3500 m), 28 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (1 ♂; CNC); Santa Catalina (22 °05'S, 66 ° 18 'W; 3700 m), 25 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (1 ♂; CNC).
Type locality. Peru. Puno: Pusi (15 ° 26 'S, 69 ° 56 'W).
Distribution (Map 9). Neotropical: Argentina (Jujuy), Peru (Puno), between 15 °– 23 °S and 65 °– 70 °W.
Etymology. The specific epithet, dasycephala , is of Greek derivation and is the combination of the adjective dasy, meaning hairy or shaggy, and the noun cephala, meaning head, in allusion to the dense pilosity over much of the body, particularly the head.
Remarks. Although we used colorational characters in the key to distinguish this species from N. mallonota , they may be difficult to interpret without reference to accurately determined material. As a further complication, facial coloration often varies considerably intraspecifically, although trends are evident for each species, as indicated in the key and descriptions. When identification of a specimen is doubtful, structures of the male terminalia should be examined. Unassociated female specimens will perhaps not be identifiable in some cases.
Diagnosis. Specimens of N. mallonota may be distinguished from those of similar congeners of this species group by their generally darker appearance, especially the darker scutum and legs, and by the distinctive conformation of the male terminalia. Moderately large shore flies, body length 4.00– 4.30 mm (averaging 4.16 mm); with brown to dull greenish blue coloration dorsally, becoming paler and grayer ventrally.
Head ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 53 – 57): Head ratio 0.59–0.61; frontal ratio 0.43–0.46; mesofrons with dark greenish blue to blackish blue metallic luster, densely pilose (best seen in profile); ocellar triangle and parafrons mostly concolorous, microtomentose; parafrons generally duller and more charcoal colored toward anterior margin but with a slightly subshiny, greenish blue vitta just mesad of larger fronto-orbital setae. Antenna microtomentose, mostly unicolorous, dark brown to black or with basal segments grayer. Facial ratio 0.81–0.83; face mostly dull, microtomentose, unicolorous, yellowish gray to grayish brown, frequently slightly paler in color ventrally. Eye ratio 0.98–1.02; gena-to-eye ratio 0.61–0.67; gena very wide, grayish white to silvery anteriorly, darker, more olivaceous to brown posteriorly, with some metallic although faint bluish green tinges.
Thorax ( Fig. 54View FIGURES 53 – 57): Microtomentose to subshiny; scutum mostly brownish to brownish blue but with faint, subshiny, darker vittae, 1 medial and 2 lateral pairs; anterior portion of scutum and lateral margins more microtomentose, becoming distinctly shiny posteriorly; lateral margins from postpronotum posteriorly through notopleural area duller, grayish blue to blue, darker, shinier posteriorly; dorsum of scutellum shiny, nearly concolorous with shiny mesofrons. Pleural areas mostly olivaceous gray, paler and grayer ventrally; anepisternum more brownish. Wing hyaline to very slightly infumate, pale brown; costal vein ratio 0.35–0.39; M vein ratio 0.85– 0.88. Legs mostly unicolorous, densely microtomentose, greenish gray, gradually more charcoal colored apically; tibiae and tarsi unicolorous, charcoal gray.
Abdomen: Dorsal surface mostly unicolorous, grayish blue to bluish brown, subshiny to shiny with some metallic, bluish green to greenish blue luster; anteromedial portion of each segment tinged with some brownish coloration, duller; tergite 5 of male wider basally than long. Male terminalia ( Figs. 55–57View FIGURES 53 – 57): lateral margins of epandrium more or less parallel, lacking any widening where surstyli attach; posterior surstylar processes closely opposed basally, continued parallel to each other to apex; 1 additional pair of lateral processes, each with apical setae; internal genitalic structures generally reduced in size; aedeagus very slender, much longer than wide.
Type material. The holotype male is labeled “ Bolivia, La Paz, 2 May 1969, P & P Spangler [handwritten]/ HOLOTYPE Ƌ Neoephydra mallonota Mathis USNM [red].” The holotype is double mounted (minuten in a block of polyporus), is in excellent condition, and is deposited in the USNM (100212). Four paratypes (2 ♂, 2 ♀; USNM) bear the same label data as the holotype. Other paratypes are as follows: ARGENTINA. Jujuy: Cangrejillos (S La Quiaca; 22 ° 25 'S, 65 ° 34 'W; 3500 m), 28 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (1 ♂, CNC).
MAP 10. Distribution map for Neoephydra mallonota sp. nov.
BOLIVIA. Cochabamba: Japo (18 km W; 17 ° 35 'S, 66 ° 56.2 'W; 4060 m), 23 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (15 ♂, 6 ♀; USNM); Lequepalca (1 km E; 1737.7 'S, 66 ° 57 'W; 3970 m), 26 Mar 2001, A. Freidberg, W. N. Mathis (22 ♂, 15 ♀; USNM). La Paz: El Alto (de La Paz; 16 ° 27.'S, 68 °05.8'W; 45–4600 m), 28 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (3 ♂, 2 ♀; CNC, USNM); El Alto (23 km S; 16 ° 42.7 'S, 68 ° 11.2 'W; 3860 m), 21 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (1 ♀; USNM).
CHILE. Antofagasta: Mucar (23 ° 20 'S on Argentine border; 4000–4100 m), 12–16 Dec 1965, L. E. Peña (30 Ƌ, 37 ♀; CNC); Tumbre (E of Atacama Salt Lake; 23 ° 21 'S, 67 ° 48 'W; 3600–3800 m), 6–9 Dec 1965, L. E. Peña (1 ♀; CNC).
Type locality. Argentina. Jujuy: Cangrejillos (S La Quiaca; 22 ° 25 'S, 65 ° 34 'W).
Distribution (Map 10). Neotropical: Argentina (Jujuy), Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), and Chile (Antofagasta), between 17 °– 27 °S and 65 °– 68 °W.
Etymology. The specific epithet, mallonota , is of Greek derivation and is a combination of mallo, meaning wool, and nota, meaning the back, in allusion to the abundant pilosity on the scutum.
Remarks. Our comments concerning the identification of N. dasycephala apply here also.
Diagnosis. This is the most distinctive species of the dasycephala group and specimens are easily distinguished from those of related congeners by the following characters: general coloration paler, especially the tibiae and tarsi; size smaller; structures of the male terminalia very distinctive. Medium-sized shore flies, body length 3.50–3.80 mm (averaging 3.66 mm); generally microtomentose, dull, pale greenish gray to slightly orange tan, abdomen less microtomentose, subshiny.
Head: Head ratio 0.56–0.58; frontal ratio 0.49–0.53, mesofrons with metallic bronzish green luster; ocellar triangle and posterior portion of a parafrons microtomentose, concolorous, orangish tan, becoming gray to charcoal gray anteriorly; thin strip of parafrons adjacent to dorsal margin of eye tannish gray to white. Antenna microtomentose, mostly unicolorous, grayish brown to grayish black, sometimes becoming paler, grayer basally. Facial ratio 0.83–0.87; face, including antennal groove mostly dull, microtomentose, unicolorous, brown to pale yellowish tan but frequently becoming paler in color ventrally. Eye ratio 0.89–0.93; gena-to-eye ratio 0.57–0.60; gena very high, mostly grayish white to silvery anteriorly, becoming darker, tinged with pale greenish gray to tan coloration posteriorly.
Thorax: Generally microtomentose, brown to brownish gray; scutum mostly pale bronzish tan, more microtomentose and grayer anteriorly and laterally, subshiny and darker posteriorly, with very faint metallic vittae, 1 medial and 2 lateral pairs, vittae more evident posteriorly; dorsum of scutellum shiny anteromedially, with metallic bronze luster nearly concolorous with shiny mesofrons. Pleural areas more or less unicolorous but with dorsal portion, especially anepisternum nearly concolorous with scutum, ventrally paler and grayer. Wing mostly infumate, pale brown; length 3.14–3.49 mm (averaging 3.31 mm); costal vein ratio 0.61–0.64; M vein ratio 0.85– 0.88. Forecoxa pale brownish white to grayish white; femora microtomentose, very palely tinged with some green color but mostly gray; tibiae mostly concolorous, mostly pale orange but with some grayer and darker areas toward apices; tarsi with basal tarsomeres concolorous with apex of tibiae, other tarsomeres apically dark brown.
Abdomen: Visible segments mostly concolorous, subshiny to shiny dorsally with metallic green to bronzish green luster, more microtomentose, grayer toward lateral and posterior margins. Male terminalia ( Figs. 58–60View FIGURES 58 – 60): epandrium parallel sided; basal portion of fused surstyli wide, narrowed more or less abruptly; posterior surstylar processes more widely separated basally, becoming slightly divergent apically; 1 pair of lateral processes, each bearing rather stout setae apically; phallapodeme evenly rounded along outer margin, wide; aedeagus thick over most of length, medial margin sinuate.
Type material. The holotype male is labeled “ PERU. Cuzco: Quispicamchis [sic, Quispicanchi], Huarcapay, 2900m, 1 Sep 1988, WNMathis/ HOLOTYPE Ƌ Neoephydra shewelli Mathis USNM [red].” The holotype is double mounted (minuten in a plastic elastomer block), is in excellent condition, and is deposited in the USNM. A male paratype ( USNM) bears the same locality label data as the holotype. Other paratypes are as follows: ARGENTINA. Jujuy: Cangrejillos (S La Quiaca; 22 ° 25 'S, 65 ° 34 'W; 3500 m), 28 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (1 ♂, 1 ♀; CNC, USNM); Cerrillos (22 ° 19 'S, 65 ° 49 'W; 3600 m), 31 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (1 ♀; CNC); Coyaguayma (7 km S Mina Periquitas ; 22 ° 46.7 'S, 66 ° 33.5 'W; 4100 m), 4 Nov 1968, L. E. Peña (6 ♂; CNC); Santa Catalina (22 °05'S, 66 ° 18 'W; 3700 m), 25 Oct 1968, L. E. Peña (2 ♂, 1 ♀; CNC).
BOLIVIA. Oruro: Pazña (S of town; 18 ° 36.2 'S, 66 ° 54.7 'W; 3750 m), 22 Mar 2001, W. N. Mathis (2 ♂, 1 ♀; USNM).
CHILE. Antofagasta: Mucar (on Argentina border; 23 ° 22 'S, 67 °07'W; 4000–4100 m), 12–16 Dec 1965, L. E. Peña (2 ♂, 1 ♀; CNC).
Type locality. Peru. Cuzco: Quispicanchi, Huarcapay (13 ° 38 'S, 71 ° 40 'W; 2900 m).
Distribution (Map 11). Neotropical: Argentina (Jujuy), Bolivia (Oruro), Chile (Antofagasta), and Peru (Cuzco), between 13 °– 24 °S and 65 °– 72 °W.
Etymology. The specific epithet, shewelli , is a Latin genitive patronym, honoring Guy E. Shewell (deceased), who graciously loaned the specimens of the type series and who has contributed so much to our knowledge of the Diptera of the New World.
MAP 11. Distribution map for Neoephydra shewelli sp. nov.
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