Succinoraphidia, Aspock & Aspock, 2004

Perkovsky, Evgeny E. & Makarkin, Vladimir N., 2019, A new species of Succinoraphidia Aspöck & Aspöck, 2004 (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae) from the late Eocene Rovno amber, with venation characteristics of the genus, Zootaxa 4576 (3), pp. 570-580: 577

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Succinoraphidia   and ‘Mesoraphidiidae’

It is now clear that the Mesozoic ‘Mesoraphidiidae’ is a paraphyletic group, which includes in particular the stem lineages leading to extant Raphidiidae   and Inocelliidae ( Makarkin & Archibald 2014)   . The venation of Succinoraphidia   is more similar to that of some ‘Mesoraphidiidae’ than the venation of any genus of Raphidiidae   . Moreover, there are a few mesoraphidiids in which all diagnostic character states of Succinoraphidia   are found (except for the structure of the pterostigma). It is characteristic of some minute species from the early Late Cretaceous, e.g., Grimaldiraphidia luzzii ( Grimaldi, 2000)   from the Turonian New Jersey amber; Nanoraphidia electroburmica Engel, 2002   and Burmoraphidia reni Liu et al., 2016   from the early Cenomanian Burmese amber. These genera are considered to belong to the tribe Nanoraphidiini   ( Bechly & Wolf-Schwenninger 2011; Liu et al. 2016). But the structure of their pterostigma differs from that of Succinoraphidia   . It lacks the crossvein 2scp-r at the proximal end of the pterostigma ( B. reni   ) or incorporated branches of RA within pterostigma ( G. luzzii   and N. electroburmica   ). However, the pterostigma of some other ‘Mesoraphidiidae’ from Burmese amber (e.g., Dolichoraphidia engeli Liu et al., 2016   ) is very similar to that of Raphidiidae   with a long pterostigma, including Succinoraphidia   , i.e., it possesses the crossvein 2scp-r at the proximal end of the pterostigma and the incorporated branch of RA within the pterostigma (see Liu et al. 2016: Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). The venation of Dolichoraphidia engeli   differs from that of Raphidiidae   only by the number of discoidal cells: one in D. engeli   and normally two in all Raphidiidae   , except some species, which have one discoidal cell in the hind wings, e.g., those of Harraphidia Steinmann, 1963   (see Monserrat & Papenberg 2006: Figs 1–4 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 ).

Judging from great similarity of the venation of Nanoraphidiini   (and similar genera of the Late Cretaceous ‘Mesoraphidiidae’) and Succinoraphidia   , among the former may be present a stem group leading to Raphidiidae   .