Haplodrassus dalmatensis ( L. Koch, 1866 )

Bosmans, Robert, Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida, Benhalima, Souâd & Hervé, Christophe, 2018, The genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in the Mediterranean and the Maghreb in particular (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), Zootaxa 4451 (1), pp. 1-67 : 12-15

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4451.1.1

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Haplodrassus dalmatensis ( L. Koch, 1866 )


Haplodrassus dalmatensis ( L. Koch, 1866) View in CoL

Figs 10‒17 View FIGURES 10–17 , 24‒29 View FIGURES 18–29

Drassus dalmatensis L. Koch, 1866: 89 (♀).

Drassus minusculus L. Koch, 1866: 110 , pl. 5, fig. 70 (♀).

Drassus denotatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874: 398 , pl. 52, fig. 24 (♀).

Drassus delinquens O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1875: 245 (♀).

Drassodes carinatus Strand, 1906: 609 (♂♀).

Drassodes palaestinensis Strand, 1915: 137 (♂).

Drassodes lithobius Roewer, 1928: 101 , pl. 1, f. 7 (♀).

Drassodes dalmatensis ; Simon 1914: 137, 209, f. 237‒239.

Haplodrassus dalmatensis View in CoL ; Grimm 1985: 138, figs 156, 164‒165; Levy 2004: 24, fig. 60 (“common form”, not figs 57‒59, 61 = H. omissus ).

Types. Female holotype of Drassus dalmatensis L. Koch from Croatia; not examined, depository unknown.

Remarks. Levy (2004) redescribed Haplodrassus dalmatensis based on specimens from Israel. In the female, he distinguished ‘two forms’, a ‘common form’ ( Figs 59 and 61 View FIGURES 58–66 ) and ‘a variation’ (fig. 60). In fact, these forms are two separate species, the ‘common form’ corresponding with Haplodrassus dalmatensis , and the ‘variation’ with Drassus omissus Cambridge, 1872 , a forgotten species described from Hebron, Israel. The male described by Levy is the male of Haplodrassus omissus comb. n. (see below).

Diagnosis. Males of H. dalmatensis are easily separated by the robust embolic apophysis with two blunt teeth ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 10–17 , 25‒26 View FIGURES 18–29 ), elongated and with two sharp teeth in H. omissus ( Figs 93 View FIGURES 87–97 , 108, 110 View FIGURES 108–117 ). Females are very similar but can mostly been differentiated by the wider fovea and wider median septum ( Figs 16 View FIGURES 10–17 , 28 View FIGURES 18–29 versus 95‒111).

Description. Measurements: Male (n=20): Total length 3.8‒6.5; carapace 1.61‒2.32 long, 1.42‒2.11 wide. Female (n=20): Total length 3.7‒8.0; carapace 1.62‒2.89 long, 1.29‒2.34 wide. Colour: Carapace yellowish brown, cephalic part darkened; legs yellowish brown; abdomen dark grey, spotted towards the back. Spinulation: General pattern, but ventral spines on MtI and prolateral spine on FeIV mostly absent, retrolateral spine on Fe IV often absent.

Male palp ( Figs 12‒15 View FIGURES 10–17 , 24‒27 View FIGURES 18–29 ): Tibia nearly twice as long as wide, apophysis gradually narrowing with rounded dorsal margin and concave ventral margin ( Figs 12 View FIGURES 10–17 , 27 View FIGURES 18–29 ); embolic apophysis with narrow base and wider distal part, with two blunt teeth at retrolateral side, terminally bluntly pointed ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 10–17 , 26 View FIGURES 18–29 ).

Epigyne ( Figs 16‒17 View FIGURES 10–17 , 28‒29 View FIGURES 18–29 ): Hood distinctly wider than areola; pro-fovea short, much shorter than fovea; fovea with small postero-median septum; lateral pockets wide, nearly rounded, with small baso-lateral rounded extensions ( Figs 17 View FIGURES 10–17 , 29 View FIGURES 18–29 ).

Citations in the Maghreb. ALGERIA, Laghouat, between Laghouat and Metlili ( Simon 1899). MOROCCO, Fès-Meknès, Ifrane, Cascade des Vierges ( Jocqué 1977), Nzala des Beni Ammar ( Di Franco 1994); Marrakech-Safi, Mogador (= Essaouira) (N31°30’47” W9°46’11”) ( Simon 1909).

Further material examined. AFRICA: ALGERIA, Alger, El Harrach (N36°42’46” E3°8’56”), 25m, 1♂, pitfalls in garden, 2.V.1985, idem, 1♂, pitfalls in wheat fields, 10.V.2001, O. Abrous leg. ( COA) Béchar, Taghit (N30°55’12” W2°1’47”), 630m, 1♂, gardens of palm yard, 3.IV.1989, and 1♂, 18.XI.2013, O. Abrous leg. ( CRB), Blida: Atlas Blidéen, E. of Chréa, Pic Fertasse (N36°28’10” E2°56’18”), 1450m, 1♂, pitfalls in Cedrus forest, 23.V.1987, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Chréa E., Pic E. Abdelkader (N36°24’14” E2°50’6”), 1520m, 3♂, pitfalls in Cedrus forest with undergrowth of Berberis , 20.VI.1987 ‒ 9.V.1988, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Bouira, Massif du Djurdjura, Tikjda, 1750m (N36°27'27” E4°6'22”), 1♂, stones in alpine grassland, 11.VI.1984, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), idem, Tizi Boussouil (N36°27'37” E4°9'57”), 1720m, 1♂, pitfall in stony grassland, 15.III.1990, O. Abrous leg. ( COA), El Bayadh, NE. Aflou (N34°8’32” E2°8’39”), 1450m, 1♂ 1♀, stones in abandoned fields, 22.V.1990, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), El Tarf, E. El Kala, Cap Rosa (N36°56’53” E8°14’25”), 50m, 1♂, pitfalls in dune maquis, 29.III.1988, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), M’sila, Aïn Oghrab (N35°0’52” E4°6’24”), 1♀, Coll. Simon 12794 ( MNHN AR15692), Tamanrasset, Tit n’Afara (N23°44’6” E7°3’51”), 1♀, stones along oued bordered with Acacia , 13.III.2005, K. De Smet leg. ( CRB), Tébessa, Tébessa, forêt de Bekkaria (N35°21’20” E8°14’40”), 1100m, 2♂, pitfalls in Pinus halepensis forest, 15.VI.1989, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), E. Tébessa, plain of the Merdja (N35°26’ 0” E8°6’0”), 960m, 1♂, along an oued, 2.III.1989, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Tipasa, Zeralda (N36°43’19” E2°52’16”), 15m, 1♂ 2♀, pitfalls in pear garden, 17.IV.2009, O. Abrous leg. ( COA), Tizi Ouzou, Massif du Djurdjura, Tala Guilef (N36°28’36” E3°59’48”), 1420m, 39♂ 25♀, pitfalls in montane grassland, XI.1992 ‒ XI.1994, O. Abrous leg. ( COA), idem, Tala Guilef (N36°28’36” E3°59’48”), 2100m, 1♂, stones in montane grassland, 30.IV.1984, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Tlemcen, Ghazaouet (=Nemours) (N35°6’8” W1°51’24”), 2♀, Coll. Simon 11829 ( MNHN AR15693), Mansourah, plateau de Lalla Setti (N36°4’52” E4°27’42”), 975m, 1♂, stones and litter in Pinus halepensis forest, 6.V.1984, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB). MOROCCO, Casablanca-Settat, Mechra Bennabou (32°’41’26” E9°19’14”), 400m, 1♀, stones in young Pinus plantation, 9.II.1996, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Drâa-Tafilalet, Timiderte, Oued Drâa (N30°40’16” E6°19’47”), 880m, 1♀, litter in sandy river border, 22.IV.2012, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Fès-Meknès, road Ifrane-Michlifen (N33°30’34” E5°6’12”), 1750m, 1♂, stones in grassland along rivulet, 18.IV.2012, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Missour (N33°2’24” W3°59’52”), 1♂, pitfalls in steppe, 7.III.2002, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Guelmim-Oued Noun, Tan Tan plage 10 km S. (N28°26’38” W11°22’17”), 1♀, stones in grassland, 11. II.2007, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB). EUROPE: SPAIN, Albacete, Los Yesares (N39°8’37” W1°45’50”), 620m, 1♀, stones in degraded Quercus suber forest, 8.IV.1997, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Tarazona de la Mancha S. (N39°12’ 44’ W1°56’56”), 600m, stones in degraded Quercus ilex forest along Rio Valdemembra, 8.IV.1997, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Alicante, Aspe (N38°19’47” W0°46’29”), 250m, 2♀, under stones and waste in maquis, 4.IV.1996, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Almería, Cabo de Gata (N36°44’5” W2°12’22”), 1♂, pitfalls in coastal dunes, 9.IV.1998, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Cuevas del Almanzora (N37°17’36” W1°50’28”), 90m, 2♂, stones in dry river bed, 4.IV.1996, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Badajoz, Zafra SW (N38°18’26” W6°33’6”), 1♂, stones in small valley of Rio Bodión, 2.IV.1997, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Baleares, Mallorca, Arta NW, Pas de Mellera (N39°44’14” E3°18’41”), 1♂, stones in Ampelodesma grassland, 6.IV.2004, P. Selden leg. ( NHML), Embassament de Cuber (N39°46’49” E2°46’58”), 850m, 3♂, stones in grassland, 2.IV.2003, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Burgos, E. Posa del Sal (42°39’29” W3°28’54”), 1050m, 1♂, 8.VII.1985, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Ciudad Real, Laguna del Camino de Villa Franca, 1♂, 3♀, grassland along a lake, 13.IV.1998, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Granada, Sierra Elvira (N37°13’54” W3°43’24”), 1♀, 17.VI.1908, E. Simon leg., Coll. Simon 21738 ( MNHN AR15694), Madrid, Robledo de Chavela (N40°29’28” W4°14’14”), 1♀, Mazarredo leg., Coll. Simon 6059 ( MNHN AR15695), Málaga, Campillos E., Laguna Dulce (N37°03’08” W4°50’04”), 450m, 1♀, stones in wasteland, 11.IV.1999 ( CRB), Murcia, Cartagena (N37°36’18” W0°59’10”), 1♀, Coll. Simon 13414 ( MNHN AR15706), Palencia, Fuentes de Nava, Laguna de la Nava (N39°2’58” W3°41’47”), 1♂, U. Stengele leg. ( CRB), Toledo, El Pinar de Almorox (N40°14’58” W4°23’2”), 600m, 1♀, stones in Pinus halepensis forest, 13.IV.1999, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Zaragoza, Escatron, Monasterio de Rueda (N41°19’23” W0°20’37”), 225m, 1♂, stones in open Pinus halepensis forest, 1.IV.1996, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB). FRANCE, Corse-du-Sud, Col de Vizzanova (N42°07’29” W9°8’00”), 1170m, 2♂, stones in Fagus forest, 28.V.1995, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Haute-Corse, Porri, Col de St. Agostino (N42°26’58” E9°25’5”), 600m, 2♂, stones in Castanea sativa forest, 22.V.1995, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB). ITALY, Sardinia, Sassari, Monte Limbara (N40°51’12” E9°10’1”), 1250m, 1♂, stones in clearing in Pinus forest, 11.IV.2014, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB). GREECE, Attiki, Oros Imittos (N37°56’47” E23°50’0”), above Peania, 1♀, stones in maquis, 20.IV.2000 ( CRB), Schinias, 1♂, pitfalls in Phragmites marsh, 8‒16.V.2001 ( CRB), Crete, Chania, Elafonisi (N35°16’24” E23°32'26”), 10m, 3♂ 3♀, stones in degraded dunes, 6.IV.2002, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Evvoia-Voroies Sporades, Evvoia, Paralia Aghia Anna (N38°50'57” E23°27'7”), 10m, 1♀, litter in Pinus forest, 12.V.2001, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Stira-Marmari road (N38°06'08” E24°15'33”), 500m, 1♀, stones in grassland, 14.V.2001 ( CRB), Kyklades: Iraklia (N36°50’15” E25°27’21”), 50m, 1♂, on walls of house, 17.III.2016, Y. Gavallas (CYG); Milos, Plaka (N36°44'30” E24°25'21”), 1♂, stones around amphitheatre, 28.IV.2010, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Makedonia, Florina, N. Lake Mikri Prespa , NE. Pili (N40°46'35” E21°3'3”), 800m, 1♂ 1♀, slopes to the lake, 12.VI.1997, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Halkidiki, Armenistis (N40°9'27” E23°54'54”), 2♂, pitfalls in dry Pinus forest, 8.V‒17.VI.2004, L. Provoost leg. ( CRB), between Fourka and Skala Fourkas (N40°0'15” E23°24'18”), 50m, 1♂ 1♀, pitfalls in dry river bed, 22.III‒12.VI.2004, L. Provoost leg. ( CRB), around Vourvourou (N40°10'59” E23°47'19”), 2♂, 14.V‒12.VI.2004, L. Provoost leg. ( CRB), Peloponnisos, Argolis, Thermissa (N37°24’43” E23°19’28”), 1♀, pitfalls in maquis, 25.VI.1993, N. Chatelet leg. ( CRB), Arachneo S. (N37°38'57” E22°55'2”), 1♀, stones in grassland, 24.V.1998, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Sterea Elada, Voiotia, Moscopodi, 1♂ 1 subadult ♀, 1998, L. Picard leg.. ( CRB), Thessalia, Trikala, Kastraki (N39°43'21” E21°37'38”), 250m, 1♀, near fountain in Fagus forest 11.IV.1997, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB).

Ecology. The species occurs in all kinds of habitats at different altitudes.

Distribution. Europe except the north, Atlantic Islands, North Africa, Turkey, Israel. Earlier citations of H dalmatensis in the Mediterranean region cannot be thrusted due to confusion with its sibling species H. omissus . In this region, verified material comes from Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Morocco and Algeria.


College of the Atlantic, Museum


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Natural History Museum, Tripoli














Haplodrassus dalmatensis ( L. Koch, 1866 )

Bosmans, Robert, Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida, Benhalima, Souâd & Hervé, Christophe 2018

Drassus dalmatensis

L. Koch, 1866 : 89

Drassus minusculus

L. Koch, 1866 : 110

Drassus denotatus

O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874 : 398

Drassus delinquens

O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1875 : 245

Drassodes carinatus

Strand, 1906 : 609

Drassodes palaestinensis

Strand, 1915 : 137

Drassodes lithobius

Roewer, 1928 : 101

Drassodes dalmatensis

Simon 1914 : 137

Haplodrassus dalmatensis

Grimm 1985 : 138
Levy 2004 : 24
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