Parastenonia parae ( Cook, 1895 ),

Bouzan, Rodrigo S., Iniesta, Luiz Felipe M., de Souza, Claudio A. R., Zampaulo, Robson A. & Brescovit, Antonio D., 2020, Taxonomic review of the Amazonian millipede genus Parastenonia Hoffman, 1977 and description of a new species from iron-ore caves (Polydesmida: Chelodesmidae), Journal of Natural History 53 (45 - 46), pp. 2781-2799: 2784-2790

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2020.1749956

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Parastenonia parae ( Cook, 1895 )


Parastenonia parae ( Cook, 1895) 

( Figures 1View Figure 1 (a), 5, 6, and 11(a,b))

Priodesmus parae Cook, 1895: 56  (Female holotype labelled only ‘ Para ’, Brazil, deposited in ZMB, examined by photographs). Attems 1899: 429; 1938: 64. Brölemann 1909: 81.

Parastenonia parae: Hoffman, 1977: 354  .

Priodesmus aurae Schubart, 1947: 45  , figs 44−45 (male syntype [ MNRJ 11825View Materials] and four females syntypes [MZUSP 1082; MZUSP 1083; MNRJ 11823View Materials; MNRJ 11824View Materials] from Aurá   GoogleMaps, Ananindeua (48°30 ʹ 15 ” W, 01°27 ʹ 21 ” S), Pará, Brazil, 16/IV−2/VI/1940, A.L. Carvalho coll., examined). New synonymy.

Parastenonia aurae: Hoffman, 1977: 354  .


Cook (1895) described P. parae  from a single specimen from the state of Pará, but without a specific location. Attems (1938, p. 64) considered the species as incertae sedis, and Jeekel (1963, p. 101) mentioned as its possible synonym Parastenonia aurae  , due to a presumed overlapping distribution and a concordant description of both species an opinion also expressed by Hoffman (1977b, p. 354).

Based on the examination of the type specimens of both nominal species, the identical shape of the cyphopods ( Figures 5View Figure 5 (b,c) and 6(c – f)) suggests indeed their synonymy. In addition, presumably the exact type locality of the material gathered by Cook corresponds to the coastal area of the state of Pará (the same for P. aurae  ), mainly due to the easy access and by a long history of naturalist expeditions ( Schubart 1947)  . Therefore, P. aurae  is proposed herein as a junior synonym of P. parae  .


Adult males of Parastenonia parae  differ from those of P. carajas  sp. nov. based on the combination of gonopodal characteristics: apical portion of the solenomere broad ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (a,b)); presence of a secondary denticulated process on the prefemoral process of the gonopod ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (b)). Adult females of Parastenonia parae  differ from those of P. carajas  sp. nov. based on a combination of cyphopodal characteristics: valves of the cyphopod asymmetric and absence of an upper projection ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (c – f)).


Measurements: (MNRJ 11825). Total length: unknown (body very fragmented and with parts missing). Width (body ring 5): 3.02.

Female (MZUSP 1082). Total length: 32.30. Width (body ring 5): 3.19. Telson 0.842.

Colouration (in alcohol 70%). Head missing. Body ochre and paranota tip with the same colour as the body. Legs whitish yellow. Telson missing. Female colouration reddish brown. Body as in male ( Figure 1View Figure 1 (a)).

Body rings. Fragmented and many parts of body missing. Integument with small tubercles and with a transversal groove on the metazonite; alignment of paranota straight; paranota divided laterally into three lobes: pro with usually three large processes; meso with two large processes except when the ozopore is present; meta usually with two processes. Sternite without modifications.

Male sexual characters

Gonopods. Gonopods ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (a,b)): gonopod coxae (Cx) dorsally elevated, equivalent to more than half the length of the telopodite and prominent in ectal view. Coxae with several setae in the distal dorsal side and several small bristles on the ventral side. Without a coxal apophysis. Prefemoral region long. Prefemoral process (PfP) wide, narrow in the final portion, branched at the base, with a shorter secondary process with the edge denticulated ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (b)). Femoral region branched at the base. Acropodite process slender and acuminate. The solenomere is the largest process carrying the seminal groove that extends until the apical part; elongated and broad. Gonopore and gonopod aperture on seventh body ring missing.

Female sexual characters

Cyphopods. Posterior edge of the cyphopod aperture with a medium rounded projection. Cyphopods ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (c – f)) with thick setae dispersed on the valves. Apical part of

cyphopod concave ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (c)), with the intermediate membrane projecting between the valves ( Figure 6View Figure 6 (e – f)).


Known only from Aurá, Ananindeua, state of Pará, Brazil ( Figure 11View Figure 11 (a)).














Parastenonia parae ( Cook, 1895 )

Bouzan, Rodrigo S., Iniesta, Luiz Felipe M., de Souza, Claudio A. R., Zampaulo, Robson A. & Brescovit, Antonio D. 2020

Priodesmus aurae

Schubart O 1947: 45

Priodesmus parae

Attems CG 1938: 64
Brolemann HW 1909: 81
Attems CG 1899: 429
Cook OF 1895: 56