Eigenmannia oradens

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Peixoto, Luiz Antônio Wanderley, Santana, Carlos David De & Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin, 2018, A new species of Eigenmannia Jordan & Evermann (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae) from Río Ventuari, Venezuela, Zootaxa 4422 (1), pp. 132-140: 133-138

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4422.1.8

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BFCBB311-F40A-41B2-949F-DB9156AE4240

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EE87FA-CD4D-FFDA-2ACA-9E82F5ACFBDB

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Eigenmannia oradens
status

new species

Eigenmannia oradens  , new species

Figs. 1– 3View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3, Table 1

Holotype. ANSPAbout ANSP 190768, xr, 121.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Venezuela, Amazonas, Río Ventuari at Raudales Chipirito, 88.5 Km east of San Fernando de Atabapo, 04°04’6”N 66°54’13”W, 0 1 April 2010, M. Sabaj-Pérez, N.K. Lujan, D.C. Werneke, T. Carvalho, S. Meza V., A. Luna & O. Santaella.

Paratypes. ANSP 190912View Materials, 2View Materials xr, 62.6–101.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Venezuela, Amazonas, Río Ventuari ca. 20 airmiles NE of confluence with Río Orinoco , near ornamental fish market in river, 04°04’32”N 66°53’34”W, 0 3 April 2005, N.K. Lujan, M. Arce, E.L. Richmond, M.P. Grant & T.E. WesleyGoogleMaps  . ANSP 203212, 1xr, 76.7 mm LEA, collected with the holotype, MPEG 35287, 1xr+1CS, 94.7–111.1 mm LEA, collected with the holotype. MZUSP 122802, 1MS, 102.3 mm LEA, collected with the holotype. USNM 440377, 1xr, 91.4 mm LEA, collected with the holotype.

Diagnosis. Eigenmannia oradens  differs from all congeners by presence of bony dorsolateral flange of dentary which also anchors numerous teeth along its extension (versus dorsolateral flange absent and teeth are attached only in dentary rim), and first premaxillary teeth row mobile, teeth attached to anteroventral margin of premaxilla (versus first premaxillary teeth row immobile, teeth completely attached to ventral surface of premaxilla). It is further distinguished from remain congeners, except E. besouro Peixoto & Wosiacki, 2016  , E. correntes Camposda-Paz & Queiroz, 2017  , E. meeki Dutra, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2017  , E. vicentespelaea Triques, 1996  , E. virescens Valenciennes, 1836  , and E. waiwai Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015  by the subterminal mouth (versus terminal: Fig. 2 View Figure ). The new species is diagnosed from E. besouro  , E. correntes  , E. meeki  , E. vicentespelaea  , and E. virescens  by having 38–42 teeth on premaxilla (versus 18–29 in E. besouro  , 17–20 in E. correntes  , 30–35 in E. meeki  , 25–26 in E. vicentespelaea  , and 22 in E. virescens  ). It is distinguished from E. besouro  , E. correntes  , E. meeki  , E. virescens  , and E. waiwai  by the coronomeckelian bone corresponding to 45% of length of Meckel’s cartilage (versus 20% of length of Meckel’s cartilage in E. correntes  , E. meeki  , E. virescens  and E. waiwai  and 30% of length of Meckel’s cartilage in E. besouro  ).

Eigenmannia oradens  also differs from E. meeki  , E. vicentespelaea  , and E. waiwai  by having 99–107 scales along lateral line until the end of anal fin (versus 140–168 in E. meeki  , 110–125 in E. vicentespelaea  , and 111–128 in E. waiwai  ). It is further distinguished from E. besouro  , E. correntes  , E. vicentespelaea  and E. waiwai  by absence of superior midlateral stripe (versus presence). The new species is additionally diagnosed from E. meeki  , E. virescens  , and E. waiwai  by depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1+2 approximately equal to total length of infraorbitals 1+2 (versus less than 50% of the length of infraorbitals 1+2). Eigenmannia oradens  also differs from E. besouro  , E. correntes  and E. waiwai  by having ii, 16–17 pectoral fin rays (versus ii, 13–14 in E. besouro  , ii, 11–12 in E. correntes  , and ii, 13–15 in E. waiwai  ). It is distinguished from E. correntes  and E. meeki  by having 31–38 dentary teeth (versus 16–18 and 20–23 respectively), and 164–192 anal-fin rays (versus 211–240). It also differs from E. virescens  by presence of narrow stripe on lateral line (versus absence). Eigenmannia oradens  is diagnosed from E. waiwai  by having 14 precaudal vertebrae (versus 12 or 13).

Description. Body shape and pigmentation in Figs. 1 View Figure and 2 View Figure . Morphometric data for examined specimens in Table 1. Largest examined specimen 121.6 mm LEAAbout LEA. Body elongate, distinctly compressed laterally. Greatest body depth at vertical through distal margin of pectoral fin. Dorsal profile of body convex to straight. Ventral profile slightly convex. Caudal filament elongate.

Head compressed, greatest width in opercular region and greatest depth at nape ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). Dorsal profile of head convex. Ventral profile of head slightly straight. Snout subconical in lateral view. Mouth subterminal. Premaxillary teeth 38(1) or 42 (1) arranged in five (1) or six (1) rows. First premaxillary teeth row mobile, teeth attached only to anteroventral margin of premaxilla. Maxilla slender with short, hook-shaped anterodorsal process. Posterior margin of maxilla reaching posterior margins of first and second infraorbitals. Dentary teeth 31(1) or 38(1) arranged in three (2) rows. Dentary teeth attached in bony dorsolateral flange of dentary ( Fig. 3 View Figure ). Coronomeckelian bone corresponds to 45% of length of Meckel’s cartilage. Endopterygoid teeth 10(1) arranged in single row. Mouth rictus extending posteriorly to vertical between nares or on posterior nostril. Anterior naris tube-like, closer to snout tip than to anterior margin of eye. Posterior naris rounded, without tube; near midpoint between anterior naris and anterior margin of eye. Eye small, circular, completely covered by thin membrane, on anterior one-half of HL and laterally oriented. Antorbital and infraorbitals 1 to 4 enlarged, partially cylindrical with slender osseous arches. Fifth and sixth infraorbitals slender and tubular. Depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1+2 equals total length of infraorbitals 1+2. Gill opening limited to posterior margin of opercle and extending above and below pectoral-fin base. Gill rakers tiny and fleshy. Seven (1) gill rakers on first ceratobranchial. Six (2) gill rakers on first infrapharyngobranchial. Upper pharyngeal plate with 10(1) teeth. Lower pharyngeal plate with nine (1) teeth.

Branchial membranes joined at isthmus. Branchiostegal rays five (1). First and second branchiostegal rays narrow. Third to fifth branchiostegal rays spatulate. First to fourth branchiostegal rays attached to anterior ceratohyal. Fifth branchiostegal ray attached to posterior ceratohyal.

Anus and urogenital papilla adjacent. Position of anus and urogenital papilla shifting through ontogeny from vertical through posterior margin of eye to vertical through middle of eye.

Scales small, cycloid, extending from immediately posterior of head to tip of caudal filament. Scales present on mid-dorsal region of body. Scales above lateral line at midbody eight(4), nine(1), ten*(2), or 11(1). Lateral-line scales to vertical through anal-fin terminus 99(1), 100(3), 104(1), 105(2), or 107*(1).

Pectoral-fin rays ii,16(7) or ii,17*(1). Three proximal radials. Distal pectoral-fin margin straight. Total anal-fin rays 164(1), 173(1), 177(1), 178*(2), 182(1), or 192(1). Anal-fin origin below pectoral-fin insertion. Distal margin of anal fin straight. First unbranched rays tiny; rays progressively increasing in size to first branched rays. Branched rays all of nearly equal length, except for posterior most rays that progressively decrease in size.

Precaudal vertebrae 14*(7). Transitional vertebrae three (3) or four* (4). Vertebrae to end of anal fin 57(1), 59(2), 60(2) or 61(1). Pleural ribs six*(3) or seven (7). Displaced hemal spines four* (7).

Coloration in alcohol. Body ground coloration cream. Body densely covered by dark chromatophores gradually more spaced ventrally. Chromatophores more concentrated on perforated scales forming lateral line stripe ( Fig. 1 View Figure ). Second layer of pigmentation formed by multiple, small bars of dark chromatophores situated between musculature associated with anal-fin pterygiophores. Dark individual bars in combination form two stripes-like patterns. Inferior midlaterial stripe approximately as wide as orbital diameter. Anal-fin base stripe approximately as wide as orbital diameter.

Head densely covered by dark chromatophores gradually more spaced ventrally. Lips distinctly darker than proximate areas. Pectoral and anal fins hyaline with scattered dark chromatophores overlying fin rays.

Distribution. Eigenmannia oradens  is only known from its type locality in the Río Ventuari, Río Orinoco basin, Estado Amazonas in Venezuela ( Fig. 4 View Figure ).

Etymology. The specific epithet, oradens  , is from the Latin ora, meaning edge, and dens, meaning tooth, in allusion to the presence of a bony dorsolateral flange on the dentary in which teeth are attached. An adjective.

Remarks. Eigenmannia oradens  can be diagnosed among congeners by a remarkable arrangement of the oral dentition. In the premaxilla the anterobasal margin of the first tooth row is attached to it surface. Consequently, this arrangement, gives mobility freedom to the teeth, which can reach 90 degrees from the vertical. This type of attachment is also known in species of Archolaemus ( Vari et al., 2012)  . Broadly, the premaxilla attachment in Archolaemus  and E. oradens  can be included in the Type 3 of Fink (1981) [“...a tooth attachment mode which acts as a hinge, with its axis of rotation being the anterior tooth attachment site”; pg. 176]. In contrast, the first tooth row is completely attached to the premaxilla in Sternopygidae  , Type 2 of Fink (1981). The dentary of E. oradens  is characterized by a bony dorsolateral flange, which anchors numerous teeth along its extension ( Fig. 3 View Figure ). Such condition also occurs in Archolaemus  , D. guchereauae  , and Japigny  . And according to the current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships it is considered a convergence among the four taxa (e.g., Tagliacollo et al., 2016). As noted in the diagnosis for the new species, the number of teeth rows of premaxilla and dentary have a large variation across Eigenmannia  and can be explored as source of taxonomic characters. The description of E. oradens  corroborates with previous studies that used teeth arrangement and attachment as a valuable source of taxonomic information at different hierarchical levels (e.g., Vari et al., 2012; Peixoto et al., 2015; Peixoto & Wosiacki, 2016; Campos-da-Paz & Queiroz, 2017; Dutra et al., 2017; Peixoto & Waltz, 2017).

Comparative material examined. Archolaemus blax  : INPAAbout INPA 6424, 20+4CS, 118–270mm TL, Rio Tocantins above Tucuruí Dam, Brazil. MNRJAbout MNRJ 12158, 18+4CS of 93, 90.0–382.0 mm TL, Rio Bezerra, Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Archolaemus ferreirai  : INPAAbout INPA 6422, 8+4CS paratypes, 131.0–269.0 mm TL, Rio Mucajaí, Rio Branco basin, Brazil. INPAAbout INPA 36379, 20+1CS paratype, 119.0–342.0 mm TL, Rio Mucajaí, Rio Branco basin, Brazil. Archolaemus janeae  : INPAAbout INPA 36380, 14+2CS paratypes, 136.0–225.0 mm TL, Rio Iriri, Rio Xingu basin, Brazil. Archolaemus luciae  : INPAAbout INPA 20964, 8+4CS paratypes, 106.0–200.0 mm TL, Rio Trombetas, Brazil. Archolaemus orientalis  : FMNHAbout FMNH 94418, 1CS of 3 paratype, Rio São Francisco, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 21508, holotype, 156.0 mm TL, Rio Paracatu, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 21509, 1MS paratype, 150.0 mm TL, Rio Paracatu, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Archolaemus santosi  : INPAAbout INPA 36382, 6+3CS paratypes, 73.0–212.0 mm TL, Rio Jamari, Rio Madeira basin, Brazil. Distocyclus conirostris  : INPAAbout INPA 11482, 7+3CS of 32, 100.2–197.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Purus, Brazil. INPAAbout INPA 28879, 2CS of 19, 108.7–165.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Negro, Brazil. INPAAbout INPA 28915, 2CS of 11, 108.1– 130.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Negro, Brazil. INPAAbout INPA 34018, 8+1CS, 132.0– 174.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Praia Grande above community of Carapanã, Rio Purus basin, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 20023, 2+1CS, 120.9–196.4 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Arari, Ilha do Marajó, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 20024, 2+1CS, 149.1–181.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Arari, Ilha do Marajó, Brazil. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 6982, 2+1CS, 156.2–166.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Madeira, Brazil. Distocyclus guchereauae  : MNHNAbout MNHN 2003-0013, 1, 222.0 mm TL, Maroni drainage, French Guiana. MNHNAbout MNHN 2003-0014, 1, 232.0 mm TL, Maroni drainage, French Guiana. MNHNAbout MNHN 2003-0018, 2, 322.0–321.0 mm TL, Maroni drainage, French Guiana. Eigenmannia antonioi  : MPEGAbout MPEG 10182, 6+1CS paratypes, 77.0– 118.3 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Anapu, Brazil. Eigenmannia besouro  : MZUSPAbout MZUSP 57890, holotype, 91.9 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Grande, São Desidério, Brazil; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 119104, 5+1CS, paratypes, 69.6–106.1 mm LEAAbout LEA. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 83792, 6+1CS, paratypes, 55.8–68.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Preto, Brazil. Eigenmannia desantanai  : NUP 3470, 10+1CS paratypes, 119.8– 142.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Cuiabá, Brazil. Eigenmannia guairaca  : NUP 6467, 8+2CS paratypes, 81.4–135.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Riacho Água do Ó, Brazil. Eigenmannia humboldtii  : IAvH-P 6788, 1, 316.7 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Atrato, Colombia. IAvH-P 6794, 1, 330.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Atrato, Colombia. IAvH-P 6800, 288.3 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Atrato, Colombia. IAvH-P 6806, 1CS, 205.7 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Atrato, Colombia. IAvH-P 7024, 1, 199.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Atrato, Colombia. IAvH-P 7415, 2, 240.9– 270.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Atrato, Colombia. IAvH-P 7822, 1, 312.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Magdalena, Colombia. IAvH-P 7823, 1, 264.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Magdalena, Colombia. NRMAbout NRM 27741, 1, 294.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Canõ Ponelaolla, Colombia. USNMAbout USNM 247229, 3, 134.9– 175.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Salado, Colombia. Eigenmannia limbata  : INPAAbout INPA 18288, 2CS, 98.0–151.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Lago Mamirauá, Brazil. USNMAbout USNM 305802, 10+2CS, 122.6–250.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Matos, Bolivia. Eigenmannia macrops  : BMNH 1897.8.6.1, holotype, 128.5mm LEAAbout LEA, Potaro River, Guyana. USNMAbout USNM 402684, 6, 80.1–116.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Cuyuni River, Guyana. USNMAbout USNM 405265, 3, 56.3–107.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Cuyuni River, Guyana. USNMAbout USNM 405266, 15+1CS, 63.3–162.9 mm LEAAbout LEA, Cuyuni River, Guyana. Eigenmannia matintapereira  : MZUSPAbout MZUSP 109618, 3+1CS paratypes, 79.7–143.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Uneiuxi, Brazil. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 109695, 5+1CS paratypes, 65.7–167.7 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Urubaxi, Brazil. Eigenmannia meeki  : USNMAbout USNM 293171, holotype, 235.7 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Pucuro, Panamá. MPEGAbout MPEG 33912, 1+1 CS, 194.6–222.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Pucuro, Panamá. Eigenmannia microstoma  : BMNH 1868.7.8.2–3, 2 syntypes, 101.1–139.3 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. ZMUCAbout ZMUC P2516 (formally ZMUCAbout ZMUC 21), 1 syntype (photo and radiograph), 162.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. ZMUCAbout ZMUC P2517 (formally ZMUCAbout ZMUC 23), 1 syntype, 153.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. ZMUCAbout ZMUC P2518 (formally ZMUCAbout ZMUC 24), 1 syntype, 176.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. ZMUCAbout ZMUC P2519 (formally ZMUCAbout ZMUC 25), 1 syntype, 105.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. ZMUCAbout ZMUC P2520 (formally ZMUCAbout ZMUC 26), 1 syntype, 101.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. MCPAbout MCP 45216, 5+1CS, 57.7–91.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Pandeiros, Brazil. Eigenmannia muirapinima  : MPEGAbout MPEG 21777, 1+3CS paratypes, 84.6–98.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Lago Jará, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 29489, 11+2CS paratypes, 76.2–97.7 mm LEAAbout LEA, Igarapé Santo Antônio, Brazil. Eigenmannia nigra  : ANSPAbout ANSP 162130, 3 paratypes, 243.0–265.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Casiquiare, Venezuela. BMNH 1998.3.17, 8 of 15, 133.0– 192.9 mm LEAAbout LEA, Paraná Apara, Brazil. CASAbout CAS 54387, 3+1CS of 5, 139.2– 166.9 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Orinoco bifurcation, Venezuela. CASAbout CAS 54518, 1, 130.3 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Orinoco bifurcation, Venezuela. INPAAbout INPA 9976, 3+1CS of 10, 149.7– 223.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Paraná Apara, Brazil. INPAAbout INPA 15813, 12, 148.4– 222.4 mm LEAAbout LEA, Lago Tefé, Brazil. USNMAbout USNM 260240, 4+1CS of 22, 192.2– 225.2 mm LEAAbout LEA, main channel of Río Apure, Venezuela. Eigenmannia pavulagem  : MPEGAbout MPEG 9524, 3CS paratypes, 90.7–108.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Igarapé Anuera-Grande, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 29490 paratypes, 25+2CS, 26.2–176.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Igarapé Paraquequara, Brazil. Eigenmannia sayona  : MZUSPAbout MZUSP 96497, holotype, 131.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Parguaza, Cedeño, Venezuela; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 119711, paratypes, 6+2CS, 27.8-116.2 mm LEAAbout LEA. Eigenmannia trilineata  : UFRGSAbout UFRGS 6635, 10, 58.5–143.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Tramandaí, Brazil. UFRGSAbout UFRGS 6790, 12, 92.8–159.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Arroio Gueromana, Brazil. UFRGSAbout UFRGS 8788, 3, 114.2– 130.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Pardo, Brazil. UFRGSAbout UFRGS 13329, 1, 124.3 mm LEAAbout LEA, Arroio Corrientes, Brazil. Eigenmannia virescens  : MCPAbout MCP 12474, 1, 190.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Uruguai, Brazil. MCPAbout MCP 13416, 5, 148.7–196.0, Rio do Peixe, Brazil. MCPAbout MCP 16797, 5+2CS, 143.7–182.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Ijuizinho, Brazil. MCPAbout MCP 19330, 1, 147.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Uruguai, Brazil. MCPAbout MCP 21139, 3, 157.3– 236.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio das Antas, Brazil. MCPAbout MCP 26819, 1, 212.9 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Ibicui, Brazil. Eigenmannia vicentespelaea  : MZUSPAbout MZUSP 83461, 3+1CS, 108.0– 164.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Cave of São Vicente I, Brazil. Eigenmannia waiwai  , INPAAbout INPA 37594, 31+2CS paratypes, 94.0– 138.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Mapuera, Brazil. INPAAbout INPA 37567, 3+1CS paratypes, 74.9–154.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Cachoeira Porteira, Brazil. “ Eigenmannia  ” goajira: USNMAbout USNM 121596, holotype, 377.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Socuy, Venezuela. USNMAbout USNM 121596, 1, paratype, 335.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Río Socuy, Venezuela. Japigny kirschbaum  : MNHNAbout MNHN 2008-1201, 110.9 mm TL, holotype, Mana River, French Guiana; MNHNAbout MNHN 2000-5954, 2, 99–111 mm TL, paratypes, Maroni drainage, French Guiana. FMNHAbout FMNH 50185, 3CS, New River drainage, head of Itabu Creek, Guyana. Rhabdolichops caviceps  : INPAAbout INPA 20157, 8+2CS, 108.7–134.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Paraná do Xiboquena, tributary of Rio Solimões, Brazil. Rhabdolichops eastwardi  : INPAAbout INPA 12361, 2CS of 41, Lago do Prato, Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 1189, 2CS, 115.1–127.8 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Goiapi, Ilha do Marajó, Brazil. Rhabdolichops electrogrammus  : INPAAbout INPA 28863, 8+2CS of 79, 96.8– 101.5 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Negro, Brazil. Rhabdolichops lundbergi  : INPAAbout INPA 11406, 7+3CS of 111, 133.6– 155.6 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Coari, tributary of Rio Solimões, Brazil. Rhabdolichops nigrimans  : INPAAbout INPA 28862, 11+2CS, 97.3–132.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Negro, Brazil. Rhabdolichops troscheli  : MPEGAbout MPEG 1174, 1, Rio Goiapi, Ilha do Marajó, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 2604, 9+2CS, 90.0– 94.7 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Goiapi, Ilha do Marajó, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 2803, 1CS, 222.0 mm LEAAbout LEA, Rio Goiapi, Ilha do Marajó, Brazil. MPEGAbout MPEG 8482, 1CS, 170.1 mm LEAAbout LEA, Tomé-Açu, Pará, Brazil.

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

LEA

University of Lethbridge

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

NRM

Swedish Museum of Natural History - Zoological Collections

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

MCP

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

UFRGS

Universidade Federale do Rio Grande do Sul