Glossoscolex, (GlossosColex),

Bartz, Marie L. C., James, Samuel W., Steffen, Gerusa P. K., Antoniolli, Zaida, Steffen, Ricardo B. & Brown, George G., 2018, New species-group taxa of Glossoscolex (Clitellata: Glossoscolecidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Zootaxa 4496 (1), pp. 548-561: 555-559

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n. sp.

GlossosColex (GlossosColex)  pampas Bartz & James  , n. sp.

( Figure 3E,FView FIGURE 3)

Holotype. COFM BRRS0031 one adult, cultiVated pasture, Santa Maria , Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°43'05.32''S 53°42'25.19''O, 79 masl. 0 9 NoVember 2010, G.P.K. Steffen & R.B. Steffen colls.GoogleMaps 

Paratype. COFM BRRS 0032 one adult. Same locality and collection data as holotype.

Other material. COFM BRRS0033 tWo adults, cultiVated pasture, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°43'05.32''S 53°42'25.19''O, 79 masl. 0 3 October 2011, G.P.K. Steffen & R.B. Steffen collsGoogleMaps  . COFM BRRS0034 tWo adults, natiVe grassland, Uruguaiana , Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°49'15.8''S 57°04'56.7''O, 59 masl. 0 8 September 2010, G.P.K. Steffen & R.B. Steffen collsGoogleMaps  . COFM BRRS0036 one adult, residential laWn, Santa Maria , Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°41'53.19''S 53°45'20.57''O, 121 masl. 22 NoVember 2009, G.P.K. Steffen & R.B. Steffen collsGoogleMaps  . COFM BRRS0037 three adults, black oats, Itaara , Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°38'55.50''S 53°44'41.38''O, 438 masl. 0 2 March 2012, G.P.K. Steffen & R.B. Steffen collsGoogleMaps  . MZUSP121View Materials one adult, labeled as cotype (syntype) of Glossoscolex colonorum Michaelsen 1918  and probably collected together With types by W. Ehrhardt (date not specified) at riVer Itapocu margin, JoinVille, Santa Catarina. Altogether 15 specimens  .

Uncertain identification. COFM BRRS0035 one adult and three subadult, cultiVated pasture, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29°43'05.32''S 53°42'25.19''O, 79 masl. 15 December 2012, G.P.K. Steffen & R.B. Steffen colls.GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The species is named after its occurrence in cultiVated pastures and natiVe grasslands ( pampas  ). The Pampas Brazilian Biome constitute a natural and pastoral region of plains coVered by fields located in Rio Grande do Sul and Argentina and Uruguai. The meaning of pampa is flat. The origin of the expression is Quechua, a South American language of indigenous origin that Was also used in the empire of the Incas.

Description. Dimensions: Holotype 176 mm by 7.0 mm at x, 8.0 mm at clitellum, 6.5 mm at xl, 274 segments; paratype 199 mm by 8.1 mm at x, 8.3 mm at clitellum, 6.3 mm at xl, 268 segments. Body length and segment number of non-type indiViduals ("other material") ranging from 143 to 244 mm and 198 to 352, respectiVely. Body cylindrical. Setae closely paired throughout; setal formula aa:ab:bc:cd:dd = 4.4:0.1:1:0.1:6.3. Setae not Visible before clitellum. Prostomium proepilobous, post-setal secondary annulations present Vii –xxiV and after clitellum. Unpigmented/Whitish. OVipores in ab in xiV, 5 mm apart. Male pores 3.8 mm apart on xVii Within paired round papillae; segment xVii much narroWed; clitellum saddle, xV –1/2 xxii, xxii ( Fig. 3A,BView FIGURE 3). Nephropores just aboVe b.

Septa 6/7–10/11 equally thick and muscular, septa 13/14/15/16 highly expanded With a circumesophageal barrier to make a sac, knobby outside and fuzzy inside. Alimentary canal With barrel shaped gizzard in Vi; esophagous With high cheVron-patterned lamellae Vii –xi, ValVular in xiii, intestinal origin xiV; typhlosole origin xiV, in xV –xix is Very WaVy simple lamina, xx –xxi zig-zag With Ventral edge bent oVer to form pockets, after xxii gradually becoming simple triple lamina. Calciferous glands paired xii, egg shaped, anterior face flattened and attached to septum 11/12, short pedunculated, composite-tubular type; blood Vessels to gland include large branch of dorsal Vessel to approximate center of each gland. Holonephric, Vesiculate; ducts to body Wall near leVel of b.

Vascular system With Ventral trunk, single dorsal trunk, lateral Vessels in Vii –ix, esophageal hearts in x –xi, last hearts enclosed in testis sacs. Extra-esophageal Vessel from pharyngeal glands, along Ventral-lateral face of gizzard, esophagus back to calciferous glands; supraesophageal Vessel in x –xi.

OVaries, oVarian funnels free in xiii. Male sexual system metandric, testes and funnels unparried in xi, single midVentral sac; medial to hearts of xi pass narroW tubes to seminal Vesicles; seminal Vesicle lobulated, like butterfly Wings, in xi –xii/xiii, surrounding testis sacs; Vasa deferentia long, looped from xi, form dense zig-zag on body Wall en route to middle Ventro-anterior face of muscular short oVal copulatory bulbs; bulbs extend oVer xV – xViii. Copulatory bulbs With thin muscular outer layer, dense, delicate corrugated glandular inner surface With small lumen leading to male pore at approximate center of bulb connection to body Wall; no transVerse muscle bands crossing oVer bulbs, inner face of bulb attached to body Wall.

Remarks. Glossoscolex (Glossoscolex) pampas  is close to Glossoscolex (G.) colonorum Michaelsen 1918  . The differences betWeen G. (G.) pampas  and G. (G.) colonorum  are as folloWs, With the characteristics of the latter in parentheses: clitellum xV –1/2 xxii, xxii (xV –xx, xxi), calciferous gland in xii (in xi), copulatory bulbs short oVal (globular), extension of seminal Vesicles xi –xiii (xii –xVii) and shape of seminal Vesicle butterfly-Wing shaped=lobulated (band-shaped). The differences betWeen G. (G.) pampas  and G. (G.) pastivus  are: testis sacs short U-form fused With seminal Vesicles in xi (unpaired in xi), distances of male pores 3.8 (6.5) and form of the male pores round papillae (oVal dimples porophores) ( Table 1).

The specimen of sample COFM BRRS 0035, collected tWo years later at the type locality, had some morphological differences Worth noting: the size Was much smaller (108 mm length, 0.62 mm diameter at clitellum), despite also being adult, the calciferous gland Was barrel-shaped (egg-shaped in the types), seminal Vesicles occupying segments xi –xii (up to xiii in the types) and copulatory bulbs occupying segments xVi –xix (xV – xViii).

The single syntype specimen of G. colonorum  (sample from MZUSP 121) also deserVes some attention since it Was not dissected and reVealed important differences regarding the original description of G. colonorum  . The original description of G. colonorum  states that 19 adults and an unknoWn number of subadults and juVeniles Were collected in the riVer Itapocu in Itapocu, JoinVille, state of Santa Catarina. HoWeVer, this location actually corresponds to Araquari county, as the riVer Itapocu does not pass through the toWn of JoinVille, and the Worms Were probably collected near the margin of the riVer, and not in the riVer as the Worm is not aquatic. LuederWaldt (1927) states that Michaelsen sent a co-type of G. colonorum  to MZUSP in 1924, at the time When he Was director of the Museum. This is the information also present on the specimen label. HoWeVer, the morphological characteristics do not match those of the original description of the species, so that either it Was mis-labeled and is from another location, or it Was collected together With the other indiViduals and represents a second Glossoscolex  species present at the type locality. In fact this is not a cotype of G. colonorum  and is here identified as G. pampas  . The differences betWeen this specimen and G. (G.) colonorum  are as folloWs, With the characteristics of the latter in parentheses: clitellum 1/4 xV –xxi (xV –xx, xxi), calciferous gland in xii (in xi), copulatory bulbs short oVal (globular) and extension of seminal Vesicles xii –xiii (xii –xVii). HoWeVer, it is closer to COFM BRRS 0035 than to the types and other material of G. pampas  , presenting all of the same differences. The differences of the MZUSP specimen and COFM BRRS 0035 Were not deemed to be enough to separate this indiVidual as a species separate from G. pampas  , but further morphological and DNA analysis of other material from the same type localities (riVer Itapocu and Santa Maria) is necessary in order to ascertain if there are other differences Which may result in separation of these specimens into a different species or sub-species of Glossoscolex  .

TABLE 2. Soil chemical and textural attributes from some areas where the new species of Glossoscolex were  found. Ca, Mg, Al in cmolc dm-3; bases, OM and clay in %; S, P, K, Cu, Zn, and B in mg dm-3.


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