Synelmis sotoi, Salazar-Vallejo, 2003

Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I., 2003, Revision of Synelmis Chamberlin, 1919 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Pilargidae), Zoosystema 25 (1), pp. 17-42 : 36-38

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.5392022

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scientific name

Synelmis sotoi

sp. nov.

Synelmis sotoi View in CoL n. sp.

( Figs 1I, J View FIG ; 12 View FIG )

Synelmis albini View in CoL – Pettibone 1966: 191-195, figs 19-21 (partim). — Rullier & Amoureux 1979: 160 (partim). Synelmis simplex View in CoL – Treadwell 1924: 12, 13 (non Chamberlin 1919, partim).

TYPE MATERIAL. — Syntypes: Univ. Iowa Barbados- Antigua Expedition, summer 1918, stn 99, id. M. H. Pettibone, 1 syntype ( USNM 20275 View Materials ) ; West Indies , 1972, stn 160-29, encrusting materials chipped from rocks, W. Hartman, id. C. D. Long, 1 syntype ( USNM 49240 View Materials ) ; Edwin Link Expedition , stn 2779, S Chinchorro Bank, 18°25.91’N, 87°18.93’W, 380 ft, 28.VIII.1990, 1 syntype (ECOSUR-PILA-5) GoogleMaps ; stn 2793, 1 syntype (ECOSUR-PILA-6); ENE Isla Mujeres , 21°16.6’N, 86°38.5’W, 243 ft, 28.VIII.1990, L. A. Soto & E. Escobar, 1 syntype attracted by submersible lights (ECOSUR-PILA-7) GoogleMaps ; Brazil, Calypso , stn 23, S of Recife , 8°19’S, 34°42’W, 21.XI.1961, 75 m, among algae and corals, 1 syntype ( MNHN A888 View Materials As 296) GoogleMaps .

TYPE LOCALITY. — Northwestern Caribbean.

ETYMOLOGY. — Named in honor of Dr Luis A. Soto, a tenacious Mexican promoter of marine sciences in general and of marine invertebrate taxonomy in particular; he was part of the crew who collected part of these materials. His many achievements have received some recognition and I wish to add this homage.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Florida. Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary, 24°33’N, 81°24’W, 1 m, X.1983, J. Thomas, 1 complete specimen and an anterior damaged fragment (USNM 98203).

Caribbean. Guayanilla Reef-1, Puerto Rico, C. Buchanan coll., id. C. D. Long, 4 specimens (USNM 50751) severely depressed by the tags, 54- 63 mm long, 0.7-1.0 mm wide (wider if more depressed), with 138-164 setigers 1 st notospine from setigers 16, 17, 18, 22, four eyes on the left side and two (one specimen)-four eyes on the right side, pharynx about 13 setigers long, some have ventral dark “mitochondria” glands. — Edwin Link Expedition, stn 2785, off Punta Gavilán, 18°21’N, 87°47’W, 279 ft, 25.VIII.1990, 1 posterior fragment.

DISTRIBUTION. — Florida, northwestern Caribbean Sea to northern Brazil, in intertidal to shallow depths.


Syntype (MNHN A888 As296): color in alcohol dark; has deep ventral dissection to expose the distal portion of pharynx. Specimen 43 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, with 134 setigers. Eyes arranged in rows: on left side eyes are in continous line with one set off from the rest, on right side the separated eye is ahead of the line ( Fig. 12B View FIG ). Parapodial cirri with pigmented glands towards bases; cirri subequal or ventral cirri slightly longer, thin, narrower than setal lobe. Notospines emerge from setiger 19; most are broken. Furcate setae slighlty asymmetrical ( Fig. 1I, J View FIG ). Pharynx is 11 setigers long.

Syntype ECOSUR-PILA-5: complete, 36 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, with 119 setigers. Body


cream with pink cirri, though pigment concentrated in glands and some pigmented spots on prostomium. Prostomium truncate cone; palps biarticulated, well separated from each other with small ventral papilla not visible dorsally. Three fusiform antennae, laterals placed abouth the middle of prostomium, median posteriorly placed. Eyes in lateral row, three on each side. Two pairs of subequal fusiform tentacular cirri ( Fig. 12A View FIG ).

Parapodial cirri with submedial pigmented glands, visible even when cirri are dark (ECOSUR-PILA-6), cirri subequal, narrower than rounded setal lobe. Dorsal cirri wider and bigger in anterior setigers ( Fig. 12C View FIG ), become slightly shorter than ventral cirri in median ( Fig. 12D View FIG ) and posterior segments ( Fig. 12E View FIG ). Notospines start in setiger 22 and protrude up to two thirds of length of dorsal cirri in posterior setigers. Posterior end truncate, pygidium with dorsal anus and two short ventral anal cirri ( Fig. 12F View FIG ). Pharynx length could not be determined.

Syntype ECOSUR-PILA-6: complete; body pale and cirri dark, even in the posterior regenerating section of the body, which is paler. Specimen 16.5 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, with 76 setigers.

Prostomium bent ventrally with biarticulated palps well separated of each other, palpostyles massive; ventral papillae were not observed. Three fusiform antennae, laterals placed about middle of prostomium and median posteriorly placed. Eyes in two lateral rows, each row with five eyes and at least one pair per row seems to be fused. Tentacular cirri fusiform, longer than cirri of setiger 1.

Parapodial cirri dark with darker glandular medial areas; setal lobe rounded. Anterior setigers with dorsal cirri larger than ventral one, in median setigers become subequal, in posterior setigers ventral cirri slightly longer. Notospines start in setiger 17, become more exposed posteriorly, half as long as dorsal cirrus. Posterior end regenerating. Pharynx length could not be determined because of the thickness of body wall.

Syntype ECOSUR-PILA-7: light complete with everted pharynx. Body thin, colorless and partly dehydrated. Specimen 14.5 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, with 60 setigers.

Prostomium with biarticulated palps widely separated, palpostyles rounded; ventrolateral papilla barely visible dorsally. Three fusiform thin antennae, laterals placed about middle of prostomium, median posteriorly placed. Two pairs of fusiform, subequal tentacular cirri, slightly longer than cirri of setiger 1. Notospines start in setiger 17 and become more exposed posteriorly. Posterior end with one asetigerous, anus terminal and two small anal cirri. Everted pharynx 4 setigers long and non-everted portion 5 setigers long, for total of 9 setigers.

Another syntype (USNM 20275) is complete, 28 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, with 127 setigers. No eyes can be seen. Pharynx is everted and broke the stomodeum wall. Notospines start in setiger 19. Another syntype (USNM 49240) is complete, 19 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, with 98 setigers. Its lateral antennae are placed medially and its eyes are five on the left and seven on the right side of the prostomium. Notospines appear from setiger 18.


Synelmis sotoi n. sp. belongs to the group of species with fusiform antennae and cirri and lateral antennae placed medially. It is very similar to S. rigida n. comb., differing mainly in having median setigers with parapodial cirri thicker than setal lobe.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Synelmis sotoi

Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I. 2003

Synelmis albini

RULLIER F. & AMOUREUX L. 1979: 160
PETTIBONE M. H. 1966: 191
TREADWELL A. L. 1924: 12
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