Sinopoda tham , Jäger, Peter, 2012

Jäger, Peter, 2012, Revision of the genus Sinopoda Jäger, 1999 in Laos with discovery of the first eyeless huntsman spider species (Sparassidae: Heteropodinae), Zootaxa 3415, pp. 37-57: 41-44

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.212054

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/502787FB-016C-FFEC-AEAA-FE385C4A01EB

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sinopoda tham
status

spec. nov.

Sinopoda tham  spec. nov.

Figs 6 –23View FIGURES 4 – 13View FIGURES 14 – 17View FIGURES 18 – 23, 81View FIGURE 81

Type material: Holotype: male, LAOS: Oudomxai Province: Xai District, Tham  Chom Ong, N 20 ° 45 ' 6.9 '', E 101 ° 46 ' 42.7 '' [800 m altitude], cave in limestone, by hand, 28 January 2010, W. Zillig leg., field number 066/ 10 ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3372).

Paratypes: 4 females, with same data as for holotype ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3373–3376).

Additional material examined (2 males, 12 females). 4 females with same data as for holotype, but: N 20 ° 43 ' 6.3 '', E 101 ° 45 ' 52.3 '' [750 m altitude], 19–21 January 2009, H. Steiner leg., field numbers 052/09, 049/09 ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3296, SD 762; PJ 3378–3380); 2 subadult females, 4 juveniles, together with and with same data as for holotype ( SMFAbout SMF). LAOS: Oudomxai Province: 1 male, 5 females, Namor District, Tham  Na Thong, N 20 ° 52 ' 20.6 '', E 101 ° 46 ' 57.8 '' [650 m altitude], cave in limestone, by hand, 26–31 January 2010, H. Steiner leg., field numbers 008/ 10, 010 / 10, 013 / 10, 040 / 10 ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3299, SD 771; PJ 3300, SD 774; PJ 3377; PJ 3311, SD 787; PJ 3312; PJ 3310); 1 female, Namor District, Tham  Mokfek, N 20 ° 48 ' 34.7 '', E 101 ° 47 ' 14.5 '' [820 m altitude], cave in limestone, by hand, 27 January 2010, H. Steiner leg., field number 039/ 10, Northern Lao-European Cave Project ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3307, SD 783); 1 male, La District, Tham  Luang, N 20 ° 49 ' 12.2 '', E 102 ° 2 ' 43.5 '' [870 m altitude], cave in limestone, by hand, 2 February 2010, H. Steiner leg., field number 005/ 10, Northern Lao-European Cave Project ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3305, SD 781). LAOS: Luang Nam Tha Province: 2 females, Tham  Ou Prang Ngiene, N 20 ° 32 ' 33.8 '', E 101 ° 8 ' 11.8 '' [800 m altitude], cave in limestone, by hand, 8 February 2006, H. Steiner leg., field numbers 075/06, 040/06 ( SMFAbout SMF, PJ 3384–3385).

Diagnosis. Medium-sized to large Heteropodinae, body length of males: 13.3–16.9, females: 13.8–22.3. Males ( Figs 14–17View FIGURES 14 – 17) with characteristic shape and course of embolus, conductor and RTA (as e.g. in S. forcipata (Karsch, 1881 ))  may be recognised by: 1. Embolus tip with thin transparent seam (may be absent/broken off) and distal part narrower, 2. dRTA long and slender with tip slightly widened, 3. vRTA compact and with ventral extension in retrolateral view (similar in S. tengchongensis Fu & Zhu, 2008  , but S. tham  spec. nov. with dRTA closer to cymbium, embolus base covered by tegulum in ventral view, embolic apophysis tip slender, cymbium more elongated). Females ( Figs 18–23View FIGURES 18 – 23) similar to those of S. triangula Liu et al., 2008  in having narrow, largely transversally oriented lateral lobes and epigynal pockets with a narrow lobal septum as well as internal duct system with long and narrow parallel part, but are distinguished from this and other Sinopoda  spp. by 1. Posterior part of internal duct system bent at right angle, ca. of the same diameter/strength as longitudinal parallel part (much larger and ovalshaped in S. triangula  ), 2. Basal part of glandular appendages approximately parallel (distinctly diverging posteriorly in S. triangula  ). 3. Epigyne with anterior semicircular rim and lateral furrows longitudinally (without such rim and furrows in S. triangula  ).

Etymology. The species name is derived from the Lao  word “ tham  ” meaning “cave” and referring to the habitat at the type locality and the fact that the species was recorded exclusively in caves; term in apposition.

Description. Male (holotype): Prosoma length 8.1, prosoma width 7.1, anterior width of prosoma 3.7, opisthosoma length 8.8, opisthosoma width 5.1. AME 0.36, ALE 0.53, PME 0.39, PLE 0.52, AME–AME 0.22, AME–ALE 0.05, PME–PME 0.29, PME–PLE 0.47, AME–PME 0.41, ALE–PLE 0.38, clypeus AME 0.45, clypeus ALE 0.37. Spination: Palp: 131, 101, 2101; legs: femur I–III 323, IV 331; patella I–IV 101; tibia I–III 2326, IV 2226; metatarsus I–II 1014, III 2026, IV 3036. Ventral metatarsus III with sparse double row of stiff bristles in proximal half, IV with dense double row of bristles along entire length. Leg formula: 2143. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 13.0 (4.5, 1.9, 2.4, -, 4.2), leg I 43.7 (11.1, 4.5, 12.1, 12.2, 3.8), leg II 48.3 (12.7, 4.6, 13.6, 13.5, 3.9), leg III 37.2 (10.6, 3.7, 10.2, 9.7, 3.0), leg IV 40.8 (11.2, 3.9, 11.1, 11.2, 3.4). Cheliceral furrow with 3 anterior and 4 posterior teeth, and with ca. 70 denticles in slightly elongated patch close to anterior teeth. Margin of chelicerae close to fang base with one bristle. Sternum, ventral coxae and femora, distal legs as well as frontal chelicerae with long setae, otherwise with shorter setae.

Palp as in diagnosis ( Figs 14–17View FIGURES 14 – 17). Cymbium much longer than tibia, RTA arising medially to proximally from tibia. Embolus arising in 7 - to 8 -o’clock-position from tegulum with tip only slightly bent, sperm duct with small bend in proximal half; tip of embolic apophysis bent at right angle. Conductor arising in 1 -o’clock-position from tegulum, elongated laminar with distal part bent ventrally.

Colouration in ethanol ( Figs 6–7View FIGURES 4 – 13): Yellowish- to slightly reddish-brown. Dorsal prosoma bright reddish-brown with cuticular radial pattern, most hairs rubbed off. Sternum, ventral coxae and femora, gnathocoxae, and labium pale yellowish-brown, gnathocoxae and labium proximally reddish-brown. Chelicerae reddish-brown. Legs reddish-brown with distal parts slightly darker, dorsal femora with faint pattern consisting of dark hairs. Dorsal opisthosoma with irregular pattern of small patches, darker (patches more dense) in posterior half. Ventral opisthosoma with book-lung margins darker, otherwise yellowish-brown without distinct pattern. Spinnerets yellowish-brown.

Female (paratype, PJ 3373): Prosoma length 7.0, prosoma width 6.1, anterior width of prosoma 3.5, opisthosoma length 10.3, opisthosoma width 6.2. AME 0.32, ALE 0.49, PME 0.35, PLE 0.48, AME–AME 0.20, AME–ALE 0.06, PME–PME 0.28, PME–PLE 0.41, AME–PME 0.40, ALE–PLE 0.41, clypeus AME 0.46, clypeus ALE 0.33. Spination: Palp: 131, 101, 2121, 1014; legs: femur I–III 323, IV 331; patella I–IV 001; tibia I–III 2026, IV 2126; metatarsus I–II 0 0 0 4, III 2016, IV 3036. Ventral metatarsus III with sparse double row of stiff bristles in proximal half, IV with dense double row of bristles along entire length. Leg formula: 2413. Measurements of palp and legs: Palp 11.3 (3.3, 1.8, 2.6, -, 3.6), leg I 31.3 (8.7, 3.5, 9.0, 7.6, 2.5), leg II 34.4 (9.8, 3.9, 9.9, 8.3, 2.5), leg III 28.7 (8.3, 3.1, 8.1, 7.0, 2.2), leg IV 31.6 (9.1, 3.0, 8.6, 8.3, 2.6). Cheliceral furrow with 3 anterior and 4 posterior teeth, and with ca. 60 denticles in slightly elongated patch close to anterior teeth. Margin of chelicerae close to fang base with one bristle. Palpal claw with 7 + 1 teeth. Sternum, ventral coxae and femora, distal legs as well as frontal chelicerae with long setae, otherwise with short setae.

Copulatory organ as in diagnosis ( Figs 18–23View FIGURES 18 – 23). Epigynal field wider than long, with short anterior bands partly integrated in the field, with one slit sensillum on each side close to the epigynal field. Epigynal pockets half the length of posterior lateral lobes. Posterior epigynal margin with two slight humps. Some sclerotised spheres present along the median line in posterior half of epigyne. Anterior part of internal duct system swollen, i.e. broader than median part. Fertilisation ducts arising from small elevations medially on bent posterior part. Membranous sac between fertilisation ducts expandable, reaching anterior part of internal duct system if expanded ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 18 – 23).

Colouration in ethanol ( Figs 8–11View FIGURES 4 – 13): as in male, but: dorsal prosoma with cephalic part slightly darker and characteristic dark submarginal transversal band posteriorly. Chelicerae dark reddish-brown, gnathocoxae and labium reddish-brown with distal bright lip. Opisthosoma generally darker, spots on dorsal side more distinct. For colouration of live specimens see Figs 12–13View FIGURES 4 – 13.

Variation. Males PL 7.0, OL 7.6. Females PL 6.3–10.2, OL 7.5–12.8. In one male ( PJ 3305) the characteristic dark transversal submarginal band on posterior dorsal prosoma was present. Moreover, the transparent seam of the embolus tip was absent/broken off (also in PJ 3399). All other characters of the male palp conform to those of the holotype. One male ( PJ 3305) with 4 anterior teeth on its left chelicera. One female ( PJ 3307) was darker than others with dark adpressed hairs almost on entire dorsal prosoma and with opisthosomal spots fused ( Figs 10–11View FIGURES 4 – 13). Another female ( PJ 3300; Figs 22–23View FIGURES 18 – 23) showed a considerably different epigyne and vulva: the two longitudinal lateral furrows anterior of the epigynal pockets were situated almost at the lateral end of the pockets, the lobal septum was shorter than in the paratype and there was a median bulge between the lateral lobes at the posterior margin of the epigyne. Glandular appendages were distinctly bent laterally at their widened tip. Since the syntopic male conforms to the holotype the differences in the female are considered intraspecific variation.

Distribution. Known from several caves in Oudomxai and Luang Nam Tha provinces ( Fig. 81View FIGURE 81).

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Sparassidae

Genus

Sinopoda