Scolopia delphinensis Appleq. & G.E.Schatz, 2016

Applequist, Wendy L. & Schatz, George E., 2016, A synoptic revision of the Malagasy species of Scolopia Schreb. (Salicaceae, Scolopieae), Adansonia 38 (1), pp. 99-115 : 103-105

publication ID 10.5252/a2016n1a6


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Scolopia delphinensis Appleq. & G.E.Schatz

sp. nov.

2. Scolopia delphinensis Appleq. & G.E.Schatz View in CoL , sp. nov.

( Fig. 3 View FIG )

Tree without spines; leaves drying pale green, narrowly elliptical, up to 8.6 × 2.9 cm, with apex acute to somewhat cuspidate or rounded, base convex to cuneate, petiole 4-6(-8) mm; inflorescences 3-7-flowered; pedicels post-flowering 6-7 mm; sepals and petals glabrous except for minutely ciliolate margins; stamens very numerous, with connective 2 to 3 times longer than thecae.

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Prov. Toliara, about 10 km NNE of Fort- Dauphin (Tôlagnaro), Mandena region, 24°57’S, 47°02’E, 10 m, 14. VI.1991, post-fl., Zarucchi et al. 7618 (holo-, MO [ MO4026737 ]! ; iso-, P!, TAN n.v.).

PARATYPES. — Madagascar. Prov. Toliara, Préfecture de Tôlagnaro ( Fort-Dauphin ), Mandena , parcelles campement, 24°57’S, 47°00’E, 0-10 m, 17.IV.1989, Dumetz et al. 685 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Fokontany Sainte Luce, Fort-Dauphin , 24°46’05”S, 47°10’20”E, 17.XII.2000, fr., Faliniaina et al. 30 (MO, TEF n.v.). Préfecture de Taolagnaro ( Fort-Dauphin ), Canton Manambaro , Petriky Forest , due N of NE corner of Lake Andranany , NW of large dune at end of road, c. 11 km WSW of Tôlagnaro , 25°03’S, 46°53’E, 0-10 m, 12.IV.1989, Gereau et al. 3352 (MO, P). Préfecture de Tôlagnaro ( Fort-Dauphin ), canton de Manambaro , Petriky Forest , c. 1.5 km W of large dune near N shore of Lake Andranany , c. 12 km WSW of Tôlagnaro , 25°03’S, 46°53’E, 0-10 m, 14.IV.1989, fr., Gereau et al. 3375 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). St. Luce, proposed QIT Madagascar Minerals ilmenite mining conservation area, 24°46’42”S, 47°10’15”E, 0 m, 13.X.2000, fr., Hoffmann et al. 203 (MO). N of Fort Dauphin, Ste. Luce region ( Manafiafy ), 24°47’S, 47°10’E, 25 m, 19.X.1989, fr., McPherson et al. 14157 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Fort Dauphin ( Tôlagnaro ) region, near area called Mandena , beyond QIT camp, 24°57’S, 47°00’E, 20 m, 4.XI.1989, fr., McPherson 14372 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Forêt classée, M 15, Ampasy , Tôlagnaro , 24°57’12”S, 47°00’09”E, 0-10 m, 30.IX.2000, fr., Rabenantoandro et al. 291 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Mandena, Ampasy , Tôlagnaro , 24°57’06”S, 47°00’06”E, 0-10 m, 18.XII.2000, fr., Rabenantoandro et al. 396 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Fivondronana Fort-Dauphin , firaisana Mahatalaky , fokontany Sainte Luce , forêt de Sainte Luce , parcelle S9 de la zone de conservation QMM. 24°46’15”S, 47°10’15”E, 4 m, 5.XI.2003, fr., Rabenantoandro et al. 1584 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Anosy region, Tôlagnaro, Manambaro, Ambovo, forêt de Petriky , zone de conservation, 25°04’S, 46°51’E, 5 m, 20.III.2007, fr., Rabenantoandro et al. 1795 ( G, MO, P, TEF n.v.). Same loc., 5.IV.2007, fr., Rabenantoandro et al. 1799 (MO, P, TEF n.v.). Préfecture de Tôlagnaro ( Fort-Dauphin ), forêt au NW de Ste. Luce , 24°46’S, 47°09’E, 10 m, 15-16.I.1990, fr., Rabevohitra 2147 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Anosy, Tôlagnaro , Manambaro , Petriky , 25°03’43”S, 46°52’06”E, 8 m, 16.XI.2006, fr., Ramison 73 (MO, P, TEF n.v.) Anosy, Tôlagnaro, Ampasy Nahampoana, Mandena, forêt Mandena , M 16, 24°57’S, 47°00’E, 6.VII.2007, fr., Ramison & Armand 320 ( G, K, MO, P, TEF n.v., USMS). Anosy, Tôlagnaro, Manambaro, Ambovo, forêt de Petriky , 25°04’S, 46°51’E, 30.XI.2007, fr., Ramison et al. 475 ( G, K, MO, P, TEF n.v., USMS). Préfecture de Fort-Dauphin , forêt de Petriky , 25°04’S, 46°51’E, 0-10 m, 3.IX.2001, fr., Randriatafika 289 (MO, P, TAN, TEF n.v.). Anosy, Tôlagnaro , Manambaro , Petriky , 25°03’S, 46°53’E, 13.XI.2006, fr., Randriatafika 742 (MO, P, TEF n.v.) Fivondronana Fort-Dauphin , firaisana Manambaro , fokontany Petriky , 25°03’19”S, 46°51’55”E, 18.II.2004, fr., Randriatafika & Ramisy 407 (MO, TAN n.v.). Forêt de Petriky , Ambovo , Manambaro , Fort-Dauphin , 25°03’39”S, 46°52’09”E, 10 m, 17.VI.1999, post-fl., Randriatafika et al. 74 (MO, P, TAN n.v.). Fivondronana Fort-Dauphin , firaisana Manambaro , forêt de Petriky entre le village d’Ambovo et de Loharano , 25°03’57”S, 46°51’18”E, 10 m, 11.II.2004, fr., Randriatafika et al. 386 (MO, TAN n.v.). Village Iatovy, canton Fort-Dauphin , district Fort-Dauphin , 7.XII.1954, Réserves Naturelles 46-R-87 (P). — Mandena , Fort-Dauphin , 7.III.1957, fl., Service Forestier 2850 (P). Fort-Dauphin, 17.IV.1951, fr., Service Forestier 3360 (P).

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT. — Scolopia delphinensis , sp. nov. is confined to the region around Fort-Dauphin in the extreme southeast; it occurs in littoral forest and humid coastal forest ( Fig. 4 View FIG ).


Tree to 12 m, dbh 22 cm, or less often a shrub; bark smooth; young twigs pale gray, glabrous. Leaves narrowly elliptical (to somewhat oblong, oblanceolate, or, in exceptional leaves, elliptical), (2.5-)4-7.5(-9.3) × (1-)1.4-2.9(-4.7) cm, persistent, drying pale green to olive (or pale greenish brown) on abaxial surface, green to gray-green or dull, usually greenish or grayish brown on adaxial surface; petiole 3-6(-8) mm, glabrous; apex acute to rounded (obtuse, cuspidate), base convex to cuneate, margins entire, both surfaces glabrous, venation pinnate with major secondary veins brochidodromous, the first pair arising above the base conspicuous, otherwise weak and poorly differentiated from intersecondary veins. Inflorescences single, (1-)3-8-flowered, 1.5-3(-3.5) cm long, not elongating in fruit, glabrous or minutely papillate; pedicels (5-)6-8.5(-10) mm, not elongating in fruit, glabrous (minutely papillate). Flowers 4-5-merous; sepals lanceolate to narrowly deltoid or deltoid, 1.2-1.8 mm, glabrous, margins ciliolate; petals ovate to deltoid or oblong, often slightly longer and broader than sepals, 1.5-1.8 mm, glabrous, margins ciliolate; receptacle pubescent; stamens probably>100, filaments c. 2.5 mm, anthers 0.6-0.8 mm with thecae only c. 0.2 mm, connective exceeding them 2-3 times; ovary glabrous; style 3.5-5 mm; stigma shallowly lobed. Fruit globose to subglobose, often with persistent style, 9-12(-15) mm diameter, red (orange) at maturity; perianth in fruit mostly caducous and remains not accrescent; seeds 1-4, tan with a pale annulus at base, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid with apex obtuse and base truncate, 3.5-5.2 mm.


Two collections of Scolopia delphinensis , sp. nov. were mentioned by Sleumer (1972a) under S. orientalis , though they were kept separate from Toamasina specimens and noted to differ in having smaller leaves. The leaves of S. delphinensis , sp. nov. are usually smaller and proportionately narrower than those of S. orientalis as herein circumscribed, and have shorter petioles when they overlap in size; the inflorescences are also smaller. Another littoral species, S. erythrocarpa , has relatively small leaves and occurs sympatrically with S. delphinensis , sp. nov. at two localities; S. erythrocarpa has obovate to oblanceolate leaves with usually rounded apices, much shorter pedicels (to 3 mm in fruit), and fewer than 40 stamens.


The wood of Scolopia delphinensis , sp. nov. is used to make boards (Réserves Naturelles 46-R-87).


Lampivahatra (Service Forestier 2850, 3360); Lapivahatra (Réserves Naturelles 46-R-87 [Antanosy dialect]); Menahihy (Ramison et al. 475); Zora (Rabenantoandro et al. 396, 1584; Ramison & Armand 320; Randriatafika & Ramisy 407).


The preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Scolopia delphinensis , sp. nov. is Endangered (EN B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v). With an Extent of Occurrence of 174 km 2, and an Area of Occupancy of c. 36 km 2, the species currently exists at four locations. While some of the habitat is protected, the remainder is subject to ongoing degradation and clearing for mining; recent collections show that the species is still easily found in those areas.

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