Psephellus incanescens (DC.) Boissier (1875: 610)

Yousefi, Zohreh, Negaresh, Kazem & Kaya, Yusuf, 2021, A taxonomic study on Psephellus sect. Amblyopogon (Asteraceae, Cardueae- Centaureinae), Phytotaxa 494 (3), pp. 273-288 : 277-278

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.494.3.3

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Psephellus incanescens (DC.) Boissier (1875: 610)


2. Psephellus incanescens (DC.) Boissier (1875: 610)   . ( Figs. 4 View FIGURE 4 and 5 View FIGURE 5 )

Amberboa incanescens Candolle (1838: 561)   . Centaurea incanescens (DC.) Schultz Bipontinus (1847: 326)   . Type:— IRAN. Prov. West Azerbaijan: in locis siccis lapidosis circa Seidchadschi, Szovits s.n. (lectotype G-DC! (G00474385: on the left side of the sheet) designated here by Negaresh, isolectotypes G00330548!, H1023234!, K000794267!, P00730184!: bottom right hand corner of the sheet).

Perennial herbs, with long rhizome, whole plant usually grayish, remains of leaf bases of the previous year present. Stems simple, always arising from the base of the rosette, procumbent, 2–10 cm tall, densely leafy throughout, ca. 2.5 mm in diam. at the base, cylindrical, with thin white striations, densely covered with tomentose hairs. Leaves coriaceous, densely covered with appressed-grayish-tomentose hairs on both sides. Rosette leaves petiolate, undivided, lanceolate or oblong, 6–10 × 1.5–4 cm, sometimes with 1–2 small lobes in base of lamina, smooth or denticulate at margins, acuminate at apex. Basal and lower cauline leaves petiolate, sometimes withered at anthesis, 4–15 × 1–2 cm, almost lyrate; terminal segment much larger, lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, denticulate at margins; lateral segments in 1–3 pairs, smaller, narrowly lanceolate, acute at apex. Median and upper cauline leaves simple, undivided, lanceolate or oblanceolate, 2–4 × 0.5–1.2 cm, narrowed toward base, smooth at margins, acute or rounded at apex. Capitula few, 1– 4-cephalous, solitary on sessile peduncles; involucres ovoid, 17–25 × 13–18 mm. Phyllaries multiseriate, coriaceous, imbricate, green, glabrous. Appendages medium-sized, membranous, totally concealing the phyllaries, pale brown or brown, outer ones straw-coloured, lanceolate or elongate lanceolate, 5–8 × 2.5–3.5 mm (excluding cilia), regularly ciliate, never with a spine; cilia straw-coloured, narrowly triangular, numerous, 10–17 on each side, 1–2.5 mm long. Flowers pink; central florets hermaphroditic, numerous, 14–16 mm long, corolla 8–9 mm long, 5-lobed, lobes 5–6 mm long, stigma exserted from corolla up to 4 mm; peripheral florets slightly longer than central ones, scarcely radiant, with staminodes, 4-lobed, limb lobes narrowly lanceolate to linear, 7–8 mm long. Achenes oblong, 6–6.5 × 2.5–3 mm, smooth and shiny, yellowish, rounded at apex, glabrous; detachment area lateral, large, ca. 0.8–1 mm long, glabrous. Pappus straw-coloured, deciduous, scabrous, 1 / 4 – 1 / 3 as long as achenes, 1–1.5 mm long, bristles of inner rows slightly longer than outer.

Nomenclatural notes: —When describing Amberboa incanescens, Candolle (1838)   cited two collections: Szovits s.n. and Aucher-Eloy 3203. In Flora Iranica, Wagenitz (1980) cited “type: Aucher-Eloy 4834, G-DC and K!”, a collection number that is not mentioned in the protologue of Amberboa incanescens   (1838: 561). Aucher-Eloy 4834 specimen could not be located in G-DC herbarium in Geneva, nor in K herbarium. This error can be explained by a specimen of P. incanescens   in W herbarium, labeled Aucher-Eloy 4834. This specimen was seen and annotated as Amblyopogon incanescens   by Boissier. Wagenitz (1980) should not have selected the specimen Aucher-Eloy 4834 as a type because the protologue ( Candolle 1838) cited explicitly Szovits s.n. and Aucher-Eloy 3203. For this reason, the typification in Flora Iranica ( Wagenitz 1980) should be rejected, and since there are two syntype collections, a lecototype must be designated.

In G-DC, the type material is represented by one sheet. The sheet comprises two specimens: Szovits s.n., on the left side of the sheet, and Aucher-Eloy 3203, on the right side of the sheet. The Szovits gathering bears a label “ Amblyopogon incanescens   , in locis siccis lapidosis circa Seidchadschi prov:Aderbeidschan, herb Szovits ”. The second specimen bears a label “Cent., Alpes Lazistani, 1837, Aucher-Eloy 3203 ”. The specimen Szovits s.n. is selected here as the lectotype because its plant contains leaves, phyllaries and capitula that are better developed than another specimen and shows the characters mentioned in the protologue.

The specimens from both type gatherings are also kept in other herbaria, for example Szovits s.n. at G-BOIS (other set), H, K and P, Aucher-Eloy 3203 at P. The label of Szovits gathering in G-BOIS slightly differs, its label reads “Ex herbario horti Petropolitani” [printed] and “ Amblyopogon incanescens, Aderbeidschan, Szovits   189 ” [handwritten], but on the label of the isolectotype P00730184 it is printed: “Herb. Al. de Bunge” and handwritten: “ Amblyopogon incanescens   , Persia boreal., Szovits ”. However , two other isolectotypes deposited in H and K have similar labels as the G-DC collection   .

Distribution: — Psephellus incanescens   generally occurs in the vicinity of Qotur city in West Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Wagenitz (1975) indicated P. incanescens   under the headline “Species doubtfully recorded” in the Flora of Turkey. While conducting floristic explorations along the Iran-Turkey border, we came across one specimen of this species in the Van Province, SE Turkey during 2015. The present report is the first record of the taxon for Turkey ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ).

Ecology: — Psephellus incanescens   is an Irano-Turanian element, and grows on stony slopes and gravel slopes in the high-montane zone, at elevations of 2000–3000 m ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ).

Taxonomic notes: — Psephellus incanescens   is similar to P. integrifolius   in its habit form, indumentum of plant and color of appendages and flowers. However, P. incanescens   differs from P. integrifolius   by its basal and lower cauline leaves almost lyrate (vs. undivided), appendages of phyllaries 5–8 × 2.5–3.5 mm (excluding cilia) (vs. 4–5 × 1.8–2.5 mm (excluding cilia)), achenes 6–6.5 mm (vs. ca. 4 mm) long, and also pappus 1 / 4 – 1 / 3 as long as achenes, bristles of inner rows almost equal to outer in width (vs. 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 as long as achenes, bristles of inner rows much wider than those of outer).

Selected specimens examined:— IRAN. Prov. West Azerbaijan: Alpes Lazistani, 1837, Aucher-Eloy 3203 (G- DC!: on the right side of the sheet, P!) (syntypes of Psephellus incanescens   ); Qotur , Qotur-Razi border checkpoint, W mountains, 38°29’42.6” N, 44°19’51.6” E, 2000–2500 m, 26 June 2015, Negaresh & Pakzad 264 ( KHAU!, FUMH!) GoogleMaps   ; 7 July 2014, Negaresh & Asadbegy 263 ( KHAU!, FUMH!)   ; Qotur, in valley Qotur , 2400 m, 20 June 2011, Negaresh & Ranjbar 15851 ( BASU!: two sheets); road of Qotur-Khoy, 5 km to Qotur, E mountains, 2200 m, 25 June 2012, Negaresh & Ranjbar 25906 ( BASU!: two sheets); Habashi Bala N Qotur, Rechinger 49586 ( W!)   ; Kuh-e Kani Ziarat N Habashi Bala, 2300–3000 m, W. Rechinger & Renz in Rechinger 49679 ( W!)   ; in valle Qotur, Rechinger 41713 ( W!)   ; Rechinger 49558 ( W!)   ; Azerbaijan, Aucher-Eloy 4834 ( P!, W!: two sheets); Szovits s.n. ( P!)   ; Qotur to Khoy, a few km from Qotur , ca. 1950 m, 10 July 1971, Lamond 3993 ( E!)   . TURKEY. Van: E mountains of Kapýköy border gate, 38°29’52.1” N, 44°19’15.9” E, 2000–2500 m, 26 June 2015, Yousefi & Negaresh 265 ( KHAU!) GoogleMaps   .


University of Helsinki


Royal Botanic Gardens


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Ferdowsi University


Bu-Ali Sina University


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Nanjing University














Psephellus incanescens (DC.) Boissier (1875: 610)

Yousefi, Zohreh, Negaresh, Kazem & Kaya, Yusuf 2021

Amberboa incanescens Candolle (1838: 561)

Schultz Bipontinus, C. H. 1847: )
Candolle, A. P. de 1838: )