Antillocladius Saether, 1981

Mendes, Humberto Fonseca & Andersen, Trond, 2008, A review of Antillocladius Saether and Litocladius Mendes, Andersen et Saether, with the description of two new Neotropical genera (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae), Zootaxa 1887 (1), pp. 1-75 : 17-19

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1887.1.1


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Antillocladius Saether


Antillocladius Saether View in CoL

Antillocladius Saether, 1981: 4 View in CoL ; Coffman et al. (1986: 160); Cranston et al. (1983: 157); Cranston et al. (1989: 176); Saether (1982: 471; 1984: 1); Mendes et al. (2004: 27) View Cited Treatment .

Type species: Antillocladius antecalvus Saether, 1981 View in CoL , by original designation.

Other included species: A. arcuatus Saether, 1982 View in CoL ; A. atalaia View in CoL sp. n.; A. axitiosus View in CoL sp. n.; A. biota Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. brazuca View in CoL sp. n.; A. calakmulensis Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. campususp View in CoL sp. n.; A. folius Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. gephyrus View in CoL sp. n.; A. herradurus Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. musci Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. pluspilalus Saether, 1982 View in CoL ; A. plicatus View in CoL sp. n.; A. scalpellatus Wang et Saether, 1993 View in CoL ; A. skartveiti Andersen et Contreras-Ramos, 1999 View in CoL ; A. sooretama Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. subnubilus ( Sinharay et Chaudhuri, 1979) View in CoL comb. n.; A. tokarameneus ( Sasa et Suzuki, 1995) View in CoL ; A. ubatuba Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. ultimus View in CoL sp. n.; A. venequatoriensis Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; A. yakyijeus ( Sasa et Suzuki, 2000) View in CoL ; A. zempoalensis Mendes, Andersen et Saether, 2004 View in CoL ; and A. zhengi Wang et Saether, 1993 View in CoL .

Diagnostic characters: The males can be separated from other orthoclads by the following combination of characters: scalpellate acrostichals at least in the middle of scutum (some simple anterior acrostichals may occur) combined with a moderately to extremely long anal point with lateral setae; virga present or absent, but lateral lamellae never present. All known females and several males have setae apically on the wing membrane. The combination of absence of thoracic horn and presence of thorn-like macrosetae will separate the pupae from other genera. The larva is distinguished by a palmate S I; pecten epipharyngis divided into about 8–12 teeth; anal segment protruding over posterior parapods; and anal setae absent or perhaps reduced to single seta on minute tubercle.

Generic diagnosis:

Imago. Small to medium sized species, wing length 0.8–2.3 mm.

Antenna. Female antenna with 5 flagellomeres. Male antenna with 13 flagellomeres, groove beginning at flagellomere 3, sensilla chaetica on flagellomeres 2, 3 and 13. Male antennal ratio 0.50–1.70.

Head. Eye naked, with or without minute pubescence between ommatidia, without dorsomedian extension. Temporal setae divided into weak inner verticals, stronger outer verticals, postorbitals absent or few. Third palpomere with about 3 sensilla clavata subapically, longest 8–23 µm long.

Thorax. Antepronotum well developed, lobes meeting medially along short suture. Acrostichals, short, all scalpellate or anterior few simple, beginning close to antepronotum, some distance from antepronotum or in the middle of scutum, situated lateral of median suture; prealars uniserial; supraalar(s) 0–2; scutellars uniserial.

Wing. Anal lobe protruding to absent. Costal extension moderately to strongly developed, 1/2 to 4 times the length of RM. R 2+3 running and ending midway between R 1 and R 4+5; R ending opposite or slightly distal to M 3+4; FCu far distal to RM; Cu 1 straight to slightly sinuous; An ending proximal to FCu. Veins bare or with setae on R, R 1, R 4+5, M 1+2, M 3+4, Cu, Cu 1 and An. Membrane with apical setae in female; male without setae, with few weak setae apically in cell r 4+5, or with numerous setae apically in cells r 4+5, m 1+2 and m 3+4. Squama bare or with up to 15 setae.


Legs. Pseudospurs, sensilla chaetica and pulvilli lacking. Comb and tibial spurs normal. Spurs smooth or with small denticles.

Abdomen. Tergites with irregularly arranged setae.

Male hypopygium. Anal point long, pointed, with strong lateral setae, with microtrichia only at base or nearly to apex. Phallapodeme and aedeagal lobe well developed. Anterior margin of sternapodeme nearly straight to strongly arcuate, oral projections barely indicated to strongly developed. Virga absent or consisting of 2–6 spines of variable size. Inferior volsella highly variable; simple and rounded or triangular; with anterior dorsal triangular or digitiform part and a more rounded ventral, posterior part; with microtrichia-free, digitiform anterior projection and long rounded, low to prominent posterior lobe; consisting of a posteriomedially directed, apically simple or bifid lobe; or circular with or without additional rounded posterior extension and conspicuously set off. Gonostylus with or without heel; crista dorsalis absent to rounded and well developed. Megaseta normal.

Female genitalia. Gonocoxapodemes curved and meeting anterior of vagina. Gonocoxite relatively well developed, with few long setae and additional short setae. Tergite IX divided or undivided with setae concentrated to lateral halves. Gonapophysis IX with large ventrolateral lobe covering apodeme lobe and apex of narrow, line-like dorsomesal lobe. Labia relatively large, pointed. Cerci small. Seminal capsules small to medium-sized, circular, with triangular neck. Spermathecal ducts with bends or loops, with weak bulbs before separate openings.

Pupa. Small to medium sized, total length 2.0 to 3.5 mm.

Cephalothorax. Frontal setae absent. Frontal apotome smooth. Antennal sheath with or without pearl row above pedicel. Ocular field with 2 reduced postorbitals. Thoracic horn absent. Three weak precorneals situated in row or narrow triangle. Apparently 2 median and 0–1 lateral antepronotals. Dorsocentrals very small, in two groups of two. Thorax and wing sheath smooth.

Abdomen. Tergite I without shagreen; tergites II–VIII covered with coarse shagreen except along anterior margin; tergite IX with strong shagreen except along anterior and posterior margins. Sternites I and II bare; sternite III with median and lateral shagreen; sternites IV–VI with slightly more extensive median and lateral shagreen; sternites VII and VIII with extensive shagreen; sternite IX with anterolateral shagreen. Tergite II without posterior hooklets. Tergites II–VII or VIII with posterior row of weak spines. Conjunctives bare. Pedes spurii A and B absent. Apophyses weak, nearly straight. Segment II–VIII with 2 weak, hair-like L setae . Anal lobe with 3 thorn-like macrosetae, sometimes laterally expanded; male genital sac overreaching anal lobe, female genital sac not reaching apex of lobe.

Larva. Small to medium sized, 3.0–3.3 mm long.

Head. Antenna 5-segmented, less than half as long as mandible, last 3 segments short. Blade as long as or longer than flagellum, striated. Lauterborn organs absent, style large. S I nearly palmate with 5–6 teeth, one of them usually larger. Other S setae normal. No discernible labral lamellae. Pecten epipharyngis of 8–12 teeth (each of the normal 3 scales divided into 2–5 teeth). Chaetulae laterales simple, 3 strong and sclerotized, 4–5 weak, pointed and unsclerotized. Chaetulae basales simple or bifid. Mandible with apical tooth shorter than the combined widths of 4 inner teeth, fourth tooth sometimes joined to mola. Seta subdentalis triangular. Seta interna slender, composed of 4–5 nearly smooth to strongly serrated branches. Mentum with large, irregular triangular, sometimes medially notched median tooth higher than 5 pairs of lateral teeth, fourth pair smaller than fifth and apparently occasionally completely reduced. Ventromental plates small, visible only below 3 outermost teeth, no beard. Maxilla without pecten galearis, lacinial chaeta reduced to rounded lamellae.

Abdomen. Without distinct setae. Anterior parapods fused for most of their lengths, with groups of minute claws and some longer mostly smooth claws. Procercus apparently absent, but a vestigial tubercle with one short seta may represent procercus at least in some species. Anal tubules shorter than half the length of posterior parapods (shape not clear in any available material). Posterior parapods well developed, with strong apical claws.












Antillocladius Saether

Mendes, Humberto Fonseca & Andersen, Trond 2008


Mendes, H. F. & Andersen, T. & Saether, O. A. 2004: 27
Cranston, P. S. & Oliver, D. R. & Saether, O. A. 1989: 176
Coffman, W. P. & Cranston, P. S. & Oliver, D. R. & Saether, O. A. 1986: 160
Saether, O. A. 1984: 1
Cranston, P. S. & Oliver, D. R. & Saether, O. A. 1983: 157
Saether, O. A. 1982: 471
Saether, O. A. 1981: 4
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