Neoephydra chilensis (Macquart),

Mathis, Wayne N. & Marinoni, Luciane, 2016, Revision of Ephydrini Zetterstedt (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the Americas south of the United States, Zootaxa 4116 (1), pp. 1-110: 53-55

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Neoephydra chilensis (Macquart)


15. Neoephydra chilensis (Macquart) 

Figs. 72–74View FIGURES 72 – 74, Map 15

Ephydra chilensis Macquart 1851: 276  .— Blanchard 1852: 464 [reference].— Cresson 1931: 85 [diagnosis and discussion].— Hendel 1930: 150 [list].

Dimecoenia chilensis  .— Cresson 1935: 350 [generic combination].— Oliveira 1954 a: 188 [list].— Wirth 1968: 23 [Neotropical catalog].— Mathis and Zatwarnicki 1995: 239 [world catalog].

Neoephydra chilensis  .— Mathis 2008: 10 [generic combination].

Ephydra gilvipes Coquillett 1901: 377  .— Hendel 1930: 150 [list].—Mathis 1995: 636 [synonymy].

Dimecoenia gilvipes  .— Cresson 1935: 353 [generic combination; review].— Oliveira 1954 a: 188 [list].— Wirth 1968: 23 [Neotropical catalog]; 1969: 593 [distribution and diagnosis].

Diagnosis. Specimens of N. chilensis  are distinguished from similar congeners of the araucaria  group by the following characters: appearance generally gray, microtomentose; face moderately setose; gena moderately short; and structures of male terminalia with distinctive conformation. Medium-sized to moderately large shore flies, body length 3.40 –5.00 mm; generally dull, grayish brown to gray with some subshiny areas dorsally.

Head: Head ratio 0.68–0.70; frontal ratio 0.53–0.56; mesofrons with dark greenish to greenish blue, metallic luster, pilose laterally; ocellar triangle and parafrons nearly concolorous, microtomentose, brownish gray to charcoal gray; parafrons becoming more charcoal colored anteriorly; fronto-orbits with narrow strip through insertions of fronto-orbital setae subshiny, with some metallic luster; number of fronto-orbital setae usually 2, sometimes with a large seta posterior to others. Antenna mostly concolorous, blackish brown. Facial ratio 0.95– 0.98; mostly moderately setulose particularly along oral margin and toward posteroventral portions of face; dorsum of interfoveal hump with subshiny area more or less concolorous with mesofrons, otherwise face densely microtomentose, mostly whitish gray, faintly brownish dorsally, paler ventrally. Eye ratio 0.87–0.90; gena-to-eye ratio 0.34–0.38; gena high, coloration gray to whitish gray but with faint tinges of olivaceous green posteriorly.

Thorax: Mostly microtomentose; scutum mostly brown, somewhat subshiny, darker posteriorly; anterior margin microtomentose, gray to bluish gray, subshiny luster concolorous with mesofrons; pleural areas paler, more gray colored ventrally; anepisternum with central area and dorsal margin brownish, otherwise becoming gray; other pleural areas including coxae mostly whitish gray, faintly olivaceous dorsally, paler ventrally. Wing length averaging 3.19–3.34 mm; mostly very faintly infuscate, very pale grayish brown; costal vein ratio 0.21–0.24; M vein ratio 0.80–0.83. Legs mostly pale colored, yellowish to reddish yellow; femora of some specimens thinly microtomentose, grayish to faintly greenish gray; tibiae and tarsi yellowish to reddish yellow.

Abdomen: Generally microtomentose and unicolorous, grayish olivaceous green to gray, becoming paler toward lateral margins, some specimens with faint bluish tinges of metallic luster; ventral surface of tergites frequently whitish gray. Tergite 5 of male somewhat trapezoidal, truncate apically. Male terminalia ( Figs. 72–74View FIGURES 72 – 74): margins of epandrium in posterior view tapered very gradually, rounded dorsally; surstyli in posterior view roughly forming isosceles triangle, lateral margins long; surstylus in lateral view with posterior process moderately wide on basal 3 / 4, thereafter tapered to rounded, anteriorly curved apex; lateral process moderately long, bluntly rounded, with 2–3 long, medioapical setulae.

Type material. The lectotype male of Ephydra chilensis Macquart  , here designated to stabilize and make more universal the use of this name, is labeled “ 8 [handwritten on white disk]/[a green disk, white on underside] 124 38 [1838][handwritten on underside]/ Ephydra Chilensis  ♀ [sic] Macq. n. sp. [handwritten on folded, white rectangle]/ LECTOTYPE Ephydra chilensis Macquart  by W. N. Mathis [red, handwritten].” Two paralectotypes (1 Ƌ, 1 ex) are labeled with the same label data as the lectotype except for the determination label. The lectotype and paralectotypes are in the MNHN (number 1996). All specimens of the type series are pinned directly and are moldy; the head and abdomen of one of the paralectotypes is missing; the abdomen of the lectotype has been removed and dissected, and the structures are in an attached microvial.

The lectotype male Ephydra gilvipes  (designated by Wirth 1969: 593) is labeled “Galapagos Is[lands] Albemarle [Isabela; 0° 49.8 'S, 91 °08.1'W] 2-13 - 1899 [13 Feb 1899]/ Type No. 4429 U.S. N.M. [red]/ Ephydra gilvipes Coq.  / LECTOTYPE Ephydra gilvipes Coquillett  by W. N. Mathis [red, handwritten].” In the original description, Coquillett listed one male and five female syntypes. We have studies three of these species and only one was a female. The best male specimen of the type series was selected as the lectotype and is deposited in the USNM (4429). The lectotype is pinned directly; the abdomen has been removed and dissected, and the structures are stored in an attached microvial.

Type locality. “ Chile.” (ca. 30 °S, 71 °W).

Additional specimens examined. ARGENTINA. La Rioja: Carrizal Bajo (28 ° 53 'S, 67 ° 33 'W), Oct 1958, L. E. Peña (6 ♂, 2 ♀; MZUSP).

CHILE. Antofagasta: Tocopilla (22 °05'S, 70 ° 12 'W), 10 Apr 1931, D. S. Bullock (4 ♂, 5 ♀; USNM). Tarapaca: Azapa Valley (18 ° 29 'S, 70 ° 14 'W), Jun 1912, D. E. Porter (1 ♂, 1 ♀; USNM); Noasa (19 ° 59 'S, 69 °08'W), 28 Sep 1951, L. E. Peña (13 ♂, 6 ♀; USNM); Pica (20 ° 30 'S, 69 ° 21 'W), 23 Sep – 20 Nov 1966, M. E. Irwin, E. Medina (2 ♂, 5 ♀; USNM).

PERU. Lima: Huaura (16 mi N; 11 °04.1'S, 77 ° 36 'W), 15 Jan 1955, E. S. Ross, E. I. Schlinger (1 ♂, 1 ♀; CAS, USNM); Lima, Laguna de Villa (12 °03.3'S, 77 °03'W), 30 Aug 1988, W. N. Mathis (11 ♂, 1 ♀; USNM).

Distribution (Map 15). Neotropical: Argentina (La Rioja), Chile (Antofagasta, Tarapaca), Ecuador (Galápagos Islands), and Peru (Lima), between the equator and 23 °S and 70 °– 91 °W.

Remarks. This species is widespread, mostly west of the Andes Mountains, and throughout its known range color polymorphism is evident. The legs of most specimens are pale colored, mostly yellowish to reddish yellow, but occurring sympatrically are occasional specimens with dark colored femora. The femora of these specimens are actually pale colored, but their microtomentose vestiture is denser and darker, covering their pale coloration.

MAP 15. Distribution map for Neoephydra chilensis (Macquart)  .


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


California Academy of Sciences














Neoephydra chilensis (Macquart)

Mathis, Wayne N. & Marinoni, Luciane 2016

Neoephydra chilensis

Mathis 2008: 10

Dimecoenia chilensis

Mathis 1995: 239
Wirth 1968: 23
Oliveira 1954: 188
Cresson 1935: 350

Dimecoenia gilvipes

Wirth 1968: 23
Oliveira 1954: 188
Cresson 1935: 353

Ephydra gilvipes

Hendel 1930: 150
Coquillett 1901: 377

Ephydra chilensis

Cresson 1931: 85
Hendel 1930: 150
Blanchard 1852: 464
Macquart 1851: 276