Cerambycinae, Latreille, 1802

Maier, Chris T., 2018, Larval Hosts of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Parandrinae, Prioninae, Lepturinae, Spondylidinae, Cerambycinae) in Connecticut and Nearby States, The Coleopterists Bulletin 72 (3), pp. 439-456: 444-451

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-72.3.439

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FD1035-FFBB-744A-FCFE-5F58C1AFF944

treatment provided by

Diego

scientific name

Cerambycinae
status

 

Cerambycinae  

Anelaphus parallelus (Newman)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Barkhamsted, 41.93183°, -73.01033°, G: 19. iv.2011, E: 1.v.2011 (1), dead girdled branch, Q. rubra   ; New Haven Co., Guilford, 41.26558°, -72.67622°, G: 8.iv.2015, E: 12.v.2015 (1), dead girdled branch (diam 0.8–1.5 cm), Q. rubra   ; Guilford, 41.32644°, -72.72741°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 21.iv.2013 (1), dead girdled branch (diam 0.7–1.1 cm), C.glabra   ; Guilford, Site 2, G: 20.iv.2007, E: 15.v.2007 (1), wood (cut 8.v.2005), Q. alba   ; North Branford, 41.33445°, -72.77450°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 27.iv–5. v.2013 (4), dead branch, Carya ovata (Miller) K. Koch   ; North Branford, 41.34765°, -72.78951°, G: 7. iv.2015, E: 12.v.2015 (3), dead girdled branch (diam 0.5–1.5 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, 41.35040°, -72.78652°, G: 13.v.2009, E: 27.v.2009 (1), dead girdled branch, Q. rubra   ; New London Co., Voluntown, 41.60041°, -71.87808°, G: 6.v.2009, E: 20. v.2009 (2), dead girdled branch, Quercus coccinea Münchhausen.  

This branch girdler was reared from species of only Carya Nuttall   and Quercus   . Elsewhere in the USA, this species was reported to develop in branches of 16 families (e.g., Knull 1930; MacRae 1994; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; MacRae and Rice 2007; Vlasak 2014; Brown et al. 2016), suggesting that in some areas it may use a wider range of hosts than it does in Connecticut. Anelaphus species   and their damage, however, often have been identified incorrectly ( Gosling 1978, 1981, and references therein). I suspect that some of the host records attributed to A. parallelus   belong to other congeneric species.

Anelaphus villosus (Fabricius)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 13.v.2009, E: 2. vi.2009 (1), branch (cut 11.iv.2007), Q. rubra   .

This species was reported to develop in a wide range of hosts in 18 families ( Knull 1934; Kirk 1970; Perry 1975; MacRae 1994; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Ferro et al. 2009; Vlasak 2014). Due to confusion in the identification of A. parallelus   and A. villosus   ( Gosling 1978, 1981), I suspect many records attributed to the latter belong to the former or another congeneric species. Perry’ s (1975) record from P. virginiana   seems very unlikely and should be reconfirmed.

Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky)   . CT, Fairfield Co., Danbury, 41.33888°, -73.46864°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 9–17.iv.2017 (34), trunk (cut 13. iv.2016, diam 6–8 cm), J. virginiana   ; Fairfield, 41.21860°, -73.25689°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 2–30. iv.2017 (173), dead wood, J. virginiana   ; Hartford Co., Bloomfield, 41.88060°, -72.74384°, G: 22. iii.2017, E: 2–10.iv.2017 (10), branch (cut 11. iv.2016), J. virginiana   ; Enfield, G: 3.iv.2017, E: 11–24.iv.2017 (9), branch (cut 22.iv.2016), J.virginiana   ; Hartford, 41.73848°, -72.66199°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 5–14.iv.2017 (3), branch (cut 11.iv.2017), J. virginiana   ; Simsbury, 41.83841°, -72.78838°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 16–30.iv.2017 (6), dead branch, J. virginiana   ; Wethersfield, 41.71235°, -72.64317°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 2–17.iv.2017 (6), trunk (cut 11.iv.2016, diam 14–16 cm), J. virginiana   ; Litchfield Co., Watertown, 41.60650°, -73.06262°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 16.iv. 2017 (1), trunk (cut 29.iv.2016, diam 7–8 cm), J. virginiana   ; Middlesex Co., Chester, 41.39928°, -72.47338°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 14.iv.2017 (1), branch (cut 14.iv.2016), J. virginiana   ; Cromwell, 3–23. iv.2017 (18), branch (cut 11.iv.2016), J. virginiana   ; Haddam, 41.45596°, -72.52825°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 10.iv.2017 (1), dead branch, J. virginiana   ; Westbrook, 41.29420°, -72.48907°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 9–12.iv.2017 (9), branch (cut 14.iv.2016), J. virginiana   ; New Haven Co., New Haven, 41.33691°, -72.96677°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 14–17. iv.2017 (2), trunk (cut 15.iv.2016, diam 9–10 cm), J. virginiana   ; Oxford, 41.38459°, -73.17013°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 14.iv.2017 (2), trunk (cut 13. iv.2016, diam 10–12 cm), J. virginiana   ; Southbury, 41.47686°, -73.21340°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 9–16. iv.2017 (22), trunk (cut 13.iv.2016, diam 12–13 cm), J. virginiana   ; Waterbury, 41.57075°, -73.00437°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 10.iv.2017 (1), branch (cut 13. iv.2016), J. virginiana   ; New London Co., Sprague, 41.65295°, -72.09273°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 10–16. iv.2017 (4), dead wood, J. virginiana   ; Tolland Co., Tolland, 41.85315°, -72.36399°, G: 5.iv.2017, E: 11–16.iv.2017 (3), dead branch, J. virginiana   ; Windham Co., Thompson, 41.94708°, -71.88197°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: 9–23.iv.2017 (25), dead branch, J. virginiana   ; Thompson, 41.94709°, -71.88193°, G: 7.iv.2017, E: 26.iv.2017 (1), dead branch (diam 4–5 cm), Juniperus communis L.  

In the northeastern USA, Maier and Lemmon (2000), Maier (2007, 2008, 2009), and Maier and Graney (2012) documented that this eastern Asian cerambycid develops in nine different hosts in the Cupressaceae   , including the two species listed here.

Callidium frigidum Casey. CT, Windham Co., Thompson   , 41.94708°, -71.88197°, G: 22.iii.2017, E: iv.2017 (2), branch (cut 13.iii.2016), J. virginiana   ; Thompson, 41.94709°, -71.88193°, G: 7.iv.2017, E: 30.iv–31.v.2017 (3), dead branch (diam 4–5 cm), J. communis   .

Linsley and Chemsak (1997) and Maier (2009) listed the known hosts of C. frigidum   , including the two given above. Larvae bore exclusively into species of Cupressaceae   .

Callimoxys sanguinicollis sanguinicollis (Olivier)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 10. iii.2016, E: 11–13.iv.2016 (2), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, 41.32647°, -72.72745°, G: 19. iv.2011, E: 6.v.2011 (1), dead branch (0.9–1.1 cm), C. glabra   *.

The record from C. tomentosa   confirms the use of this host that was suspected by Rice (1982). Larvae of this cerambycid apparently use hosts in five families (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Vlasak 2014). I suspect that C. sanguinicollis sanguinicollis   emerges mainly from wood that has been dead for more than one year.

Clytoleptus albofasciatus (Castelnau and Gory)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, 41.35470°, -72.76588°, G: 20.ii.2015, E: 31.v–24. vi.2015 (5), vine (cut 16.v.2014, diam 4–5 cm), Vitis labrusca   L. *.

With the exception of the dubious host of Carya   that apparently was recorded originally by Hamilton (1887), larval hosts are restricted to Vitis species   (Turnbow and Franklin 1980; Linsley and Chemsak 1997), including V. labrusca   reported here.

Clytus marginicollis Castelnau and Gory. CT, Hartford Co., Windsor   , 0.33 km WSW jct St Rt 20 and High St, G: 17.iii.2003, E: 10–18.iv.2003 (2), branch (cut 22.iii.2002), T. canadensis   *; Middlesex Co., Middletown, between Dooley Pond and Coleman Rd, L: 13.iii.2002, E: 23.iii–10.iv.2002 (20), branch (cut 11.iv.2001), P. strobus   *; Middletown, between Dooley Pond and Coleman Rd, G: 13.iii.2002, E: 28.iii–10.iv.2002 (18), branch (cut 10.iv.2001), Abies balsamea   (L.) Miller *; Middletown, between Dooley Pond and Coleman Rd, G: 13.iii.2002, E: iv–v.2002 (5), branch (cut 10. iv.2001), Picea rubens Sargent   *; New London Co., Voluntown, Pachaug St Forest, 0.6 km SE jct St Rt 165 and Kinney Rd, G: 15.iii.2002, E: 10.iv.2002 (1), dead branch, P. banksiana   *. NJ, Cumberland Co., Maurice River, nr jct St Hwy 47 and 347, G: 15. iii.2001, iv.2001 (1), wood (cut 2.iii.2000), P. virginiana   ; Ocean Co., Barnegat, 0.2 km ESE county line on St Hwy 72, G: 15.iii.2001, E: 1-22.iv.2001 (3), dead wood, P. rigida   *.

These rearing data add two new genera and six species to larval hosts used in the lone host family, the Pinaceae   (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002).

Clytus ruricola (Olivier)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Barkhamsted, 41.91707°, -72.94421°, G: 24. iv.2013, E: 14.v.2013 (1), dead trunk (girdled 25. iii.2004), Fraxinus americana   L. * ( Oleaceae   ); Norfolk, 41.94991°, -73.20767°, G: 6.v.2014, E: 27. v.2014 (1), dead branch, Salix bebbiana Sargent   * (Salicaeace); New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 20.iv.2016 (1), branch (cut 14. v.2014), C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, 41.32622°, -72.72729°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 26.iv.2013 (1), dead branch, C. tomentosa   *; North Branford, 41.34501°, -72.78982°, G: 6.v.2015, E: 15–18.v.2015 (2), trunk (dead>2 years), Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart   ( Fagaceae   ); North Branford, Site 2, G: 19.iii.2012, E: 27.iv.2012 (1), trunk (cut iv.2007, diam 17–21 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, 41.35015°, -72.78662°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 29.iv–2.v.2013 (3), trunk (cut 19.iii.2012), T. americana   ; New London Co., Voluntown, 41.59724°, -71.87847°, G: 20. iii.2015, E: 3.v.2015 (1), trunk (cut 8.iv.2014, diam 6–7 cm), Betula alleghaniensis Britton   *.

With the addition of the record of F. americana   , the first host in the Oleaceae   ,this cerambycid now has hosts in eight families (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Saint-Germain et al. 2007). Clytus ruricola   emerges from hosts that have been dead between one and eight years, an unusual pattern. Blackman and Stage (1924) noted that this species emerged from logs that had been dead for 4–5 years.

Curius dentatus Newman. NJ, Cumberland Co.   , Maurice River , nr jct St Hwy 47 and Secondary Rd 550, G: 15.iii.2001, E: v.2001 (9), wood (cut 1. iii.2001), J. virginiana     ; Maurice River , nr jct St Hwy 47 and 347, G: 15.iii.2001, E: v.2001 (1), wood (cut 2.iii.2000), P. virginiana     *.

The larval host genera Juniperus   and Pinus   were reported by Linsley and Chemsak (1997) and Maier (2009). Known host families include two that are gymnosperms and three that are angiosperms (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Morris 2002; Maier 2009).

Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Cornwall, Mohawk St Forest, nr jct Mohawk Mountain and Toomey Rd, G: 28.iii.2003, E: 10–11.v.2003 (1), branch (cut 3.v.2002), Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen   * ( Fagaceae   ); New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 21.iv.2017, E: 23.iv.2017 (1), dead branch, C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, 41.32648°, -72.72701°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 11. iv.2013 (1), dead wood (tree uprooted during storm on 29.ix.2011), Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch   ( Betulaceae   ); Guilford, 41.38808°, -72.74246°, G: 15.iii.2002, E: 1–10.iv.2002 (5), dead wood, Prunus persica   (L.) Batsch ( Rosaceae   ); Hamden, 1 km NW jct St Rt 10 and 40, G: 13.iii.2003, E: 29.iii–13. vi.2003 (7), dead branch, P. persica   ; New London Co., Old Lyme, 41.31135°, -72.33620°, G: 15. iii.2002, E: 10.iv.2002 (1), wood (cut 27.iii.2001), Prunus serotina Ehrhart   *. MA, Berkshire Co., Savoy, 42.61624°, -73.04138°, G: 2.iv.2012, E: v.2012 (1), trunk (cut 26.v.2011, diam 6–7 cm), Crataegus sp.   ( Rosaceae   ).

The broad range of larval hosts of C. verrucosus   includes at least 12 families ( Dolphin et al. 1972; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002), including a coniferous one ( Perry 1975). Larval development in the unlikely host of P. virginiana   ( Perry (1975), however, should be reexamined. In New England, adults of this species typically emerged from wood that had died about one year earlier.

Elaphidion mucronatum (Say)   . CT, Hartford Co., Enfield, 41.96613°, -72.53480°, L: ii.2001, E: iv.2001 (8), dead trunk, Acer saccharinum   L. *; Windsor, 0.35 km WNW jct St Rt 75 and High St, G: 22.iii.2002, E: vi.2002 (1), trunk (cut 6.iv.2001), B. lenta   *; New Haven Co., New Haven, 41.28749°, -72.93472°, G: 1.ii.2007, E: 15.v.2007 (1), dead branch (diam 5–6 cm) Tilia   x europaea L. *.

These three new host records furnish the first evidence of hosts in Betulaceae   and Malvaceae   . With these new records and those of Kirk (1970), Rice (1985), Boldt and Robbins (1987), MacRae (1994), Linsley and Chemsak (1997), Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), Morris (2002), MacRae and Rice (2007), Holland (2009), and Vlasak (2014), this cerambycid is known to develop in at least 23 plant families, having one of the broadest host ranges among cerambycids. I disregard the record from Chamaerops   L. in the family Arecaceae ( Linsley 1963)   because Linsley and Chemsak (1997) excluded it in their summary of hosts.

Hesperophanes pubescens (Haldeman)   . CT, New Haven Co., New Haven, 41.33843°, -72.96686°, G: 9.v.2017, E: 1.vii.2017 (1), dead branch, Q. montana   *.

This species may be restricted to Quercus   ( Morris 2002; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002). Quercus montana   is only the second host that has been identified to species.

Heterachthes quadrimaculatus Haldeman. CT   , New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 29.iv.2016, E: 14–23.vi.2016 (3), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, Site 1, G: 21.iv.2017, E: 20.vi–7.vii.2017 (6), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, 41.32622°, -72.72729°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 27.v.2013 (1), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, 41.32639°, -72.72742°, G: 10. iii.2016, E: 1.vi.2016 (1), dead branch (0.4–1.2 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, Site 1, G: 6.v.2015, E: 15–25. vi.2015 (3), dead branch, C. ovata   ; North Branford, Site 1, G: 9.v.2017, E: 18.vi–4.vii.2017 (2), dead branch, C. ovata   .

Adults that were reared in Connecticut were from hosts previously recorded in other parts of the USA (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002). Based on records from Connecticut, this cerambycid most likely develops in dead branches of Carya species   , even though it has been reared from hosts in three additional families (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002)   .

Megacyllene caryae (Gahan)   . CT, Hartford Co., East Hartford, G: iii.2000, E: iv.2000 (12), dead wood, Carya sp.   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20. iii.2008, E: 6–20.iv.2008 (38), trunk (cut 11. iv.2007, diam 17–24 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 3–13.iv.2008 (34), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007), C. ovata   ; North Branford, 3 km NNE jct St Rt 22 (Forest Rd) and 80, G: 3. iv.2003, E: 19–20.iv.2003 (7), trunk (cut 27.iv.2002; diam 15–18 cm), C. glabra   ; New London Co., Franklin, 0.48 km NE jct St Rt 87 and Champion Rd, G: 12.v.2011, E: 12–15.v.2011 (2), dead trunk (seasoned firewood), C. glabra   ; Tolland Co., Vernon, nr jct Heidi and Legion Dr, L: 19.vii.2001 (not chilled), E: xii.2001 (1), ii.2002 (6), dead trunk, Prunus sp.  

This species, commonly known as the painted hickory borer, infests mainly Carya species   , but also, at least sparingly, uses hosts in at least eight families other than Juglandaceae   (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Holland 2009).

Molorchus bimaculatus bimaculatus Say. CT   , New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 29.iv.2016, E: 8.v.2016 (1), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; New Haven, 41.33843, -72.96686, G: 9.v.2017, E: 15. v.2017 (1), dead branch, Q. montana   *; North Branford, Site 1, G: 9.v.2017, E: 12.v.2017 (4), dead branch, C. ovata   .

This cerambycid has been reared from dead branches of 15 families of woody plants (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; MacRae and Rice 2007; Holt 2013; Vlasak 2014).

Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (Fabricius)   . CT, Hartford Co., Windsor, 0.33 km WSW jct St Rt 20 and 75, G: 17.iii.2003, E: 30.iv.2003 (1), branch (cut 22.iii.2002, diam 6–7 cm), T. canadensis   *; Windsor, 0.32 km W jct St Rt 20 and 75, G: 22. iii.2002, E: 3–6.v.2002 (4), trunk (cut 6.iv.2001, diam 8–10 cm), B. lenta   *; Windsor, 0.32 km W jct St Rt 20 and 75, G: 22.iii.2002, E: 3–6.v.2002 (7), trunk (cut 6.iv.2001), Betula populifolia Marshall   *; Litchfield Co., Barkhamsted, 41.91750°, -72.94467°, G: 9.iv.2007, E: 12.v–2.viii.2007 (29), dead trunk (girdled 29.iii.2005, diam 24–41 cm), F. americana   ; Barkhamsted, 41.91750°, -72.94467°, G: 23–27. iv.2007, E: 8.v-10.viii.2007 (61), dead trunk (girdled 23.iii.2006, diam 23–38 cm), F.americana   ; Cornwall, Mohawk St Forest, nr jct Mohawk Mountain and Toomey Rd, G: 28.iii.2003, G: 10.v–9.vi.2003 (4), branch (cut 3.v.2002), C. dentata   *; New Milford, 41.54693°, -73.41867°, G: 8.iv.2013, E: 17.v.2013 (1), dead branch, Salix   x sepulcralis Simonkai *; Watertown, 0.2 km S interchange for St Rt 262 on St Rt 8, G: 22.iii.2002, E: 1–4.vi.2002 (1), trunk (cut 9. iv.2001), B. papyrifera   *; Middlesex Co., Middletown, 41.56704°, -72.66364°, G: 31.iii.2009, E: 24.v–1. vi.2009 (5), dead trunk (girdled 2.ix.2007), Ulmus americana   L. ( Ulmaceae   ); New Haven Co., Beacon Falls, 0.8 km NNW jct Cold Spring Rd and Lopus Rd Extension, G: 20.iii.2006, E: 21.iv–22.vi.2006 (8), dead trunk, Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees   ( Lauraceae   ); Guilford, 41.32558°, -72.72754°, G: 12. iv.2011, E: vi–vii.2011 (3), dead limb, Quercus palustris Münchhausen   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 1–19.v.2016 (3), branch (cut 14.v.2014), C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, 41.32642°, -72.72724°, G: 5. iv.2013, E: 12.v.2013 (1), dead limb, Q. velutina   ; Guilford, 41.32648°, -72.72701°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 3–10.v.2013 (3), dead trunk (tree uprooted during storm on 29.x.2011), O. virginiana   ; Guilford, Site 2, G: 12.iii.2002, E: 18.iv.2002 (1), trunk (cut 11. iii.2001), U. americana   ; Guilford, Site 2, G: 12. iii.2002, E: 20.iv–6.vi.2002 (3), trunk (cut 11. iii.2001), Cornus florida   L. ( Cornaceae   ); Guilford, Site 2, G: 12.iii.2002, E: 3–5.v.2002 (3), vine (cut 11. iii.2001), Vitis sp.   ; Guilford, Site 2, G: 17.iii.2003, E: 24.iv–11.v.2003 (6), trunk (cut 1.v.2002), C. dentata   *; Guilford, Site 2, G: 30.iii.2004, E: vi.2004 (1), trunk (cut 9.iii.2003), S. albidum   ; Guilford, Site 2, G: 21. iii.2006, E: 2.vi–5.vii.2006 (3), trunk (cut 8.v.2005, diam 10–13 cm), Q. alba   ; Guilford, 0.2 km ESE jct Beaver Head Rd and West St, G: 17.iii.2003, E: 26. iv.2003 (1), vine (cut 10.iii.2002), Vitis sp.   ; Guilford, 0.12 km ESE jct Beaver Head Rd and West Str, G: 17. iii.2003, E: 30.iv.2003 (2), dead trunk, Prunus armeniaca   L. *; Guilford, 0.12 km E jct Beaver Head Rd and West Str, G: 10.iii.2006, E: 18–21.iv.2006 (2), branch (cut 8.v.2005), A. saccharum   ; Guilford, 41.38828°, -72.74216°, G: 10.iii.2006, E: 20.iv–30. v.2006 (4), trunk (cut 8.v.2005), Ilex opaca Aiton   * ( Aquifoliaceae   ); Guilford, 0.13 km E jct Beaver Head Rd and West Str, G: 17.iii.2003, E: 24.iv.2003 (1), trunk (cut 10.iii.2002), Q. velutina   ; Guilford, 0.16 km E jct Beaver Head Rd and West Str, G: 23.vi.2006, E: vii.2006 (1), dead trunk, Catalpa speciosa (Warder) Warder ex Engelmann   * ( Bignoniaceae   ); Hamden, 0.8 km W jct St Rt 10 and 40, G: 10.iii.2006, E: 11. vi–5.vii.2006 (2), trunk (cut 4.iv.2005), Morus alba   L. ( Moraceae   ); Hamden, 1 km NW jct St Rt 10 and 40, G: 10.iii.2006, E: 21.iv–29.v.2006 (24), trunk (cut 4. iv.2005), J. nigra   *; Hamden, 41.40726°, -72.90744°, G: 27.iii.2009; E: 16.v–31.vii.2009 (15), branch (cut 23.iv.2008), J. nigra   *; New Haven, 41.32598°, -72.88358°, G: 27.v.2009, E: 17.viii.2009 (1), branch (cut 15.v.2008), Gleditsia triacanthos   L. ( Fabaceae   ); New Haven, 41.33648°, -72.96668°, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 23.iv.2016 (1), dead branch, Quercus stellata Wangenheim   *; North Branford, 41.33301°, -72.77498°, G: 8.iv.2015, E: 13–28.v.2015 (7), branch (cut 17.iv.2014, diam 0.3–2.0 cm), F. americana   ; North Branford, 41.34864°, -72.78831°, G: 19. iii.2012, E: 13.vi–2.vii.2012 (7), trunk (cut 29. iii.2011), F. americana   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20. iii.2008, E: 4–27.v.2008 (8), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 17–24 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 14.v.2008 (1), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007), C. ovata   ; North Branford, 3 km NNE jct St Rt 22 (Forest Rd) and 80, G: 8.iii.2002, E: 21.iv–1.v.2002 (2), trunk (cut 30.iii.2001), Q. alba   ; North Branford, 41.35470°, -72.76588°, G: 20.iii.2015, E: 11.v–14.vi.2015 (7), vine (cut 16.v.2014), V. labrusca   *; North Branford, 41.37110°, -72.76391°, G: 9.v.2017, E: 7.vi–7. vii.2017 (2), stem (cut 1.iii.2016, diam 1.5–2.0 cm), Euonymus alatus (Thunberg) Siebold   *; Orange, 1 km NNW jct St Rt 34 and Dogburn Rd, G: 15.iii.2006, E: 10–18.v.2006 (2), dead trunk (girdled 30.iii.2005, diam 17–19 cm), P. abies   *; Tolland Co., nr jct Heidi and Legion Dr, L: 19.vii.2001, E: x.2001 (1), xi.2001 (4), xii.2001 (1), ii.2002 (3), dead trunk, Prunus sp.   ME, York Co., Sanford, 0.5 km S jct St Hwy 4 and 109, G: 13.iii.2003, E: 28.iv–20.v.2003 (2), trunk (cut 4.iv.2002, diam 7–8 cm), A. balsamea   *. NH, Carroll Co., Tamworth, 1.8 km NE jct St Hwy 16 and 41, G: 30.iii.2004, E: 10–18.v.2004 (3), trunk (cut 9. xii.2002), Quercus ilicifolia Wangenheim   *; Tamworth, 1.8 km NE jct St Hwy 16 and 41, G: 30. iii.2004, E: 13–15.v.2004 (8), trunk (cut 9.xii.2002), B. populifolia   *. NJ, Ocean Co., Barnegat, 1.5 km ESE jct St Hwy 72 and Secondary Rd 554, G: 15.iii.2001, E: v.2001 (1), trunk (cut 1.iii.2000), I. opaca   *; Barnegat, 1.5 km ESE jct St Hwy 72 and Secondary Rd 554, G: 7.iii.2002, E: 26.iv–1.v.2002 (2), trunk (cut 15. iii.2001), Q. stellata   *; Lakewood, Garden St Parkway at exit for St Hwy 70, G: 7.iii.2002, E: 18–21.iv.2002 (3), trunk (cut 15.iii.2002), Q. ilicifolia   *. NY, Dutchess Co., Wappinger, St Rt 9D, 5 km NNE jct Int Hwy 84, G: 2.iv.2001, E: v.2001 (1), trunk (cut 17. iv.2000), P. abies   *.

This species, commonly known as the red-headed ash borer, was reared from 30 (fully identified) woody hosts in 22 genera that are distributed in 17 families, with the records of C. speciosa   and E. alatus   identifying Bignoniaceae   and Celastraceae   , respectively, as new host families. Seventeen of 30 (56.7%) larval hosts were new. Based upon my records and those of Rice (1985), Rice et al. (1985), Solomon (1995), Linsley and Chemsak (1997), Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), MacRae and Rice (2007), Ferro et al. (2009), Holland (2009), Maier (2009), Ulyshen et al. (2012), and others, N. acuminatus acuminatus   has an exceptionally broad host range that includes 76 species distributed in 51 genera in 26 families. Some of these host records, particularly in Craighead (1923, 1950), may refer to Neoclytus acuminatus hesperus Linsley.  

Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (Fabricius)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 7.iv.2015, E: 7.vii–7.viii.2015 (20), trunk (cut 14.v.2014, diam 19–22 cm), C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 21. iv.2017, E: 3.vi–7.vii.2017 (8), dead branch, C. tomentosa   *; North Branford, 41.33282°, -72.77448°, G: 7.iv.2015, E: 14.vii.2015 (1), trunk (cut 14. v.2014, diam 19–22 cm), C. tomentosa   *; North Branford, Site 1, G: 6.v.2015, E: 13.vi–21.vii.2015 (8), dead branch, C. ovata   *; North Branford, Site 1, G: 9.v.2017, E: 18.vi–8.vii.2017 (2), dead branch, C. ovata   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 25.v–20.viii.2008 (24), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 17–24 cm), C. glabra   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 17.vii.2008 (1), trunk (cut 11. iv.2007, diam 16–30 cm), Q. alba   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 24.iii.2009, E: 24.vi–17.vii.2009 (4), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 18–29 cm), C. glabra   *; North Branford, 41.35168°, -72.78632°, G: 10. iii.2016, E: 15.vii.2016 (2), trunk (cut 15.v.2014, diam 13–18 cm), C. ovata   *.

With the exception of a single specimen from Q. alba   , this species emerged solely from Carya species   in Connecticut. Linsley and Chemsak (1997) considered Carya   to be the only host genus, apparently discounting Perry’ s (1975) unusual record from the pine P. virginiana   . More recently, larval hosts in three additional new families were reported by MacRae and Rice (2007) and Holt (2013). Some of the records from the southern USA could refer to the subspecies Neoclytus mucronatus vogti Linsley   , which normally uses some of the hosts that have been reported for N. mucronatus mucronatus (Linsley and Chemsak 1997)   . Taxonomic reexamination of the subspecies of Neoclytus mucronatus Fabricius   and perhaps of the southern host records may be warranted.

Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, 41.32674°, -72.72736°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: vii.2013 (3), dead limb (diam 10–15 cm), Q. alba   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 23.iv.2008, E: 27. vii–17.viii.2008 (2), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 18–26 cm), Q. alba   .

This species was reported to develop in four plant families (Linsley and Chemsak 1997), but most of the records are from Quercus species   (e.g., MacRae and Rice 2007). Larval hosts of Ulmus   L. and Vitis   reported by Hamilton (1895) likely are based upon misidentification of the cerambycid or the host.

Obrium rufulum Gahan. CT, Litchfield Co., Barkhamsted, Site   1, G: 6.iv.2006, E: vii.2006 (1), dead branch, F. americana   ; Barkhamsted, 41.91750°, -72.94467°, G: 23.iv.2007, E: 19.vii.2007 (1), dead branch (tree girdled 23.iii.2006, diam 0.4–3.0 cm), F. americana   ; Norfolk, Dennis Hill St Park, G: 30. iii.2004, E: 21.v.2004 (1), wood (cut 7.v.2003), F. americana   ; New Haven Co., North Branford, 41.33301°, -72.77498°, G: 8.iv.2015, E: 15.vi–11. vii.2015 (5), trunk (cut 17.iv.2014, diam 19–24 cm), F. americana   .

Based upon the close association of this species with ash, Fraxinus   L., I would add this cerambycid to the list of species that might become imperiled by the extensive tree death caused by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire   (e.g., Gandhi and Herms 2010; Wagner and Todd 2015, 2016). Many reports ( Felt 1906; Fisher and Kirk 1912; Craighead 1923; Champlain et al. 1925; Knull 1946; Linsley 1963; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Ulyshen et al. 2012) document the reliance of O. rufulum   on ash. Interestingly, Yanega (1996) stated that larvae of this cerambycid sometimes develop in linden, Tilia   , or oak, Quercus   , but he did not provide a precise source for these associations, which no other researcher has found. These questionable host records were repeated by Lingafelter (2007).

Oeme rigida rigida (Say)   . CT, New Haven Co., Madison, 41.26130°, -72.55608°, G: 4.iv.2014, E: 25.v–3.vi.2014 (6), dead branch, J. virginiana   . RI, Washington Co., 41.37267°, -71.66495°, G: 22. iii.2017, E: v.2017 (4), dead wood, J. virginiana   .

This cerambycid apparently is restricted to woody plants in the Cupressaceae   (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Maier 2009; Vlasak 2014). Lugger’ s (1884) host record of Pinus echinata Miller   seems unlikely.

Phymatodes aereus (Newman)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, 41.35402°, -72.78373°, G: 8. iv.2008, E: 2.v.2008 (1), branch (cut 27.iv.2007), Q. montana   *; North Branford, Totoket Mountain, 3 km NNE jct St Rt 22 (Forest Rd) and 80, G: 8.iii.2002, E: 11.iv.2002 (1), iv.2002 (10), wood (cut 30. iii.2001), Q. alba   *.

This species probably uses a variety of eastern Quercus species   , but reared adults from Connecticut emerged from oaks in only the white oak group. Blackman and Stage (1924) and Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002) reported as hosts C. glabra   and O. virginiana   , respectively, the lone two records outside of the Fagaceae   (e.g., Linsley and Chemsak 1997).

Phymatodes amoenus (Say)   . CT, Hartford Co., nr jct US Hwy 44 and Love Ln, L: 20.iv.1999, E: v.1999 (14), dead vine, Vitis sp.   ; New Haven Co, Guilford, Site 2, G: 12.iii.2002, E: 9–19.iv.2002 (78), vine (cut 11.iii.2001), Vitis sp.   ; Hamden, 0.8 km W jct St Rt 10 and 40, G: 1.iii.2006, E: iv.2006 (1), stem (cut 4.iv.2005, diam 1.0– 1.5 cm), Rosa multiflora Thunberg   *; North Branford, 41.35470°, -72.76588°, G: 20.iii.2015, E: 3.v.2015 (2), vine (cut 16.v.2014), V. labrusca   *.

Larvae of this species usually develop in Vitis species   (e.g., Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002). The Connecticut record from R. multiflora   should be viewed as an accidental host because the stem sampled was entwined with a vine of Vitis   .

Phymatodes testaceus (Linnaeus)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 23.iv.2008, E: 8–10.vi.2008 (2), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 17–28 cm), Q. rubra   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20. iii.2008, E: 9.v.2008 (2), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 16–30 cm), Q. alba   *; North Branford, 3 km NNE jct St Rt 22 (Forest Rd) and 80, G: 8.iii.2002, E: iv.2002 (3), wood (cut 30.iii.2001), Q. alba   *.

This adventive species has emerged only from Quercus species   in Connecticut, even though it apparently can develop in the wood of other genera in another three non-coniferous plant families (Linsley and Chemsak 1997). Many recorded host records of P. testaceus (Linsley and Chemsak 1997)   likely are based upon misidentifications of this species, which is highly variable in adult coloration ( Lampert 1973; Gosling 1986). Almost certainly, the recorded coniferous hosts ( Craighead 1923; Knull 1934; Cope 1984) should be attributed to Phymatodes maculicollis LeConte   or to a congeneric western conifer-feeder.

Psyrassa unicolor (Randall)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 1–6. vi.2008 (2), branch (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 1.0– 2.5 cm), C. glabra   .

This twig or branch borer is reported to use hosts from six plant families ( Solomon 1995; Linsley and Chemsak 1997). I suspect some of the records should be referred to other species of Psyrassa Pascoe.  

Purpuricenus axillaris Haldeman. CT   , New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 1, G: 9.v.2017, E: 13.vi.2017 (1), dead branch, C. ovata   *.

Although this species has been reared repeatedly from Carya species   ( MacRae 2000, and references therein), the Connecticut record apparently represents only the second with a full identification of the host.

Sarosesthes fulminans (Fabricius)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 4–21.v.2008 (5), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 16–30 cm), Q. alba   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 23. iv.2008, E: 7–11.v.2008 (2), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 17–28 cm), Q. rubra   .

Larval development in species of Fagaceae   , including the two reported here, was reported by Linsley and Chemsak (1997), Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), and others. Development in herbaceous Conium maculatum   L. ( Apiaceae   ) and Juglans cinerea   L. ( Linsley 1964) seems doubtful and should be verified.

Semanotus ligneus ligneus (Fabricius)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 20. iii.2008, E: 21.iii–5.iv.2008 (8), trunk (cut 11. iv.2007, diam 10–23 cm), J. virginiana   .

This subspecies of Semanotus ligneus (Fabricius)   was reared from three species of Cupressaceae   (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Maier 2009), including J. virginiana   given here.

Stenosphenus notatus (Olivier)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 7.iv.2015, E: 26–30. iv.2015 (2), dead branch, C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 1–13.iv.2016 (3), dead branch, C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 21. iv.2017, E: 26.iv–24.v.2017 (6), dead branch, C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 21.iv.2017, E: 27–30.iv.2017 (8), trunk (cut 14.v.2014, diam 19–22 cm), C. tomentosa   *; North Branford, Site 2, B: 14.viii.2008, E: 13.v–10.vi.2009 (5), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 15–26 cm), C. glabra   .

Based upon my records and those in Linsley and Chemsak (1997), Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), and MacRae and Rice (2007), this cerambycid appears to be a hickory specialist. The (second-hand) record of a legume host reported by Hovore et al. (1987) probably should be referred to one of the congeneric southwestern USA species that develops in the wood of Fabaceae   . The record from Celtis   L. ( Cannabaceae   ) ( Fisher 1946) also needs verification.

Tilloclytus geminatus (Haldeman)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 29.iv.2016, E: 8–12. v.2016 (3), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, Site 1, G: 21.iv.2017, E: 12.v.2017 (1), dead branch, C. tomentosa   ; Guilford, 41.32639°, -72.72742°, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 11–16.iv.2016 (3), dead branch, C. glabra   *; Guilford, 41.32644°, -72.72748°, G: 19. iv.2011, E: 6.v.2011 (2), dead branch, C. glabra   *; Guilford, 41.32650°, -72.72748°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 21.iv.2013 (1), wood (cut 29.x.2011), Malus   x purpurea (A. Barbier) Rehder * ( Rosaceae   ); Hamden, 0.8 km W jct St Rt 10 and 40, G: 1.iii.2006, E: iv.2006 (2), stem (cut 5.iv.2005), R. multiflora   *; New Haven, 41.33648°, -72.96668°, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 1–17.iv.2016 (5), dead branch, Q. stellata   *; New Haven, 41.33648°, -72.96668°, G: 9.v.2017, E: 23. v.2017 (1), dead branch, Q. stellata   *; Orange, 1 km NNW jct St Rt 34 and Dogburn Rd, G: 15.iii.2005, E: 14.iv–5.v.2006 (21), dead trunk (girdled 30. iii.2005, diam 10–19 cm), P. abies   *; Orange, 1 km NNW jct St Rt 34 and Dogburn Rd, G: 15.iii.2005, E: 18.iv–18.v.2006 (24), dead branch (girdled 30. iii.2005), P. abies   *. NJ, Cape May Co., Dennis, Garden St Parkway southbound at exit 17, G: 12. iii.2002, E: 16.iv.2001 (2), wood (cut 1.iii.2000), J. virginiana   ; Ocean Co., Barnegat, 1.5 km ESE jct St Hwy 72 and Secondary Rd 554, G: 7.iii.2002, E: 9–14.iv.2002 (10), wood (cut 15.iii.2001), Q. stellata   *.

Five of seven (71.4% of total) hosts reported here are new. Based upon my records and those of Linsley and Chemsak (1997), Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), MacRae and Rice (2007), Maier (2009), and Vlasak (2014), T. geminatus   uses both coniferous and non-coniferous hosts in at least 12 families. Additional rearing probably will further expand the host range of this polyphagous species.

Xylotrechus annosus annosus (Say)   . MA, Franklin Co., Montague, 1 km NE jct Old Northfield and Turners Falls Rd, G: 1.iii.2007, E: 24. iv.2007 (2), trunk (cut 20.iii.2006, diam 12–13 cm), P. tremuloides   .

This species apparently is restricted to recently dead wood of the salicaceous genera Populus   and Salix   L. (Linsley and Chemsak 1997).

Xylotrechus colonus (Fabricius)   . CT, Fairfield Co., Stamford, 41.13482°, -73.55344°, G: 4.v.2015, E: vi.2015 (1), Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall   *; Weston, 41.23747°, -73.39623°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 3–12.v.2013 (6), dead limb (diam 10–16 cm), Q. alba   ; Litchfield Co., Canaan, 41.97683°, -73.35781°, G: 24.iii.2009, E: 23.v–30.vi.2009 (3), dead branch, Quercus muehlenbergii Engelmann   ; Canaan, 41.97683°, -73.35781°, G: 23.iv.2010, E: 5.v–16.vi.2010 (8), dead branch, Q. muehlenbergii   ; Guilford, 41.32619°, -72.72703°, G: 16. v.2014, E: 27.v–6.vi.2014 (5), dead trunk, B. lenta   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 7.iv.2015, E: 22. vi–11.vii.2015 (5), trunk (cut 14.v.2014, diam 19–22 cm), C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, Site 1, G: 10. iii.2016, E: 9–22.v.2016 (8), wood (cut 14.v.2014, diam 19–22 cm), C. tomentosa   *; Guilford, 41.32634°, -72.72737°, G: 3.iv.2008, E: 27.v–22. vi.2008 (2), dead trunk, Q. velutina   ; Guilford, 41.32642°, -72.72724°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 5.v.2013 (1), dead limb, Q. velutina   ; Guilford, 41.32652°, -72.72768°, G: 21.iv.2017, E: 24.v–15.vi.2017 (11), dead trunk, B. lenta   *; Guilford, Site 2, G: 20. iv.2007, E: 30.v.2007 (1), trunk (cut 8.v.2005), F. grandifolia   ; Guilford, 41.38797°, -72.74179°, G: 23.vi.2006, E: 27.viii–8.ix.2006 (27), dead branch, C. dentata   *; North Branford, 41.33282°, -72.77448°, G: 6.v.2015, E: 22.vi.2015 (1), trunk (cut 14.v.2014, diam 19–22 cm), C. tomentosa   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 6.v–27. viii.2008 (146), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 16–30 cm), Q. alba   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20. iii.2008, E: 7.v–4.vii.2008 (17), trunk (cut 11. iv.2007, diam 15–25 cm), Q. rubra   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 7.v–19.viii.2008 (90), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 17–24 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 14.v–16.vii.2008 (23), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007), C. ovata   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 24.iii.2009, E: 14.v–9.vii.2009 (21), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 18–29 cm), C. glabra   ; North Branford, Site 2, G: 24.iii.2009, E: 24.v–19.vi.2009 (3), trunk (cut 11. iv.2007, diam 15–25 cm), Q. alba   ; North Branford, 41.35091°, -72.78583, G: 19.iii.2012, E: 31. v.2012 (1), trunk (cut 29.iii.2011), Carya cordiformis (Wangenheim) K. Koch   *; North Branford, 41.35168°, -72.78632°, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 17–25. v.2016 (3), trunk (cut 15.v.2014, diam 13–18 cm), C. ovata   *; North Branford, 3 km NNE jct St Rt 22 (Forest Rd) and 80, G: 8.iii.2001, E: 20–21.iv.2002 (1), wood (cut 30.iii.2001), Q. alba   . MA, Franklin Co., Montague, 1 km NE jct Old Northfield and Turners Falls Rd, G: 1.iii.2007, E: 20.iv.2007 (1), vii.2007 (2), trunk (cut 20.iii.2006), Q. velutina   . NJ, Ocean Co., Barnegat, 1.5 km ESE jct St Hwy 72 and Secondary Rd 554, G: 7.iii.2002, E: 20. iv–23.vi.2002 (10), wood (cut 15.iii.2001), Q. stellata   .

Adults were reared from six new hosts. Overall, this very common species, known as the rustic borer, has larval hosts in at least 10 families (e.g., Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; MacRae and Rice 2007; Reagel et al. 2012). Records from conifers ( Champlain et al. 1925; Perry 1975; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002) are unusual.

Xylotrechus integer (Haldeman)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Norfolk, 0.9 km W jct Westside and Windrow Rd, G: 3.v.2002, E: 28.v.2002 (1), dead wood, P. resinosa     *.

Based upon my record of a new host genus and species and upon those of Linsley and Chemsak (1997) and Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), this longhorn is restricted to the coniferous families Cupressaceae   and Pinaceae   .

Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus (Germar)   . CT, Windham Co., Putnam, 41.89098°, -71.89256°, G: 20.iii.2015, E: 13–22.vi.2015 (2), dead trunk, P. resinosa   . MA, Barnstable Co., Yarmouth, nr Willow Str exit on US Hwy 6, G: 5.iv.2006, E: 30. v–25.vii.2006 (8), dead trunk, P. rigida   .

With the exception of Holt’ s (2013) record from the cedar J. virginiana   , this species develops in the dead wood of only species of Pinaceae   (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002).

Xylotrechus schaefferi Schott. NJ, Ocean Co., Barnegat   , 39.80244°, -74.39023°, unopened cone collected 10.i.2012 and put in outdoor cage in New Haven Co., E: 29.vii.2012 (1), P. rigida   .

This rarely encountered cerambycid has the unusual habit of developing in closed cones of hard pines, such as P. banksiana   and P. rigida (Hoebeke and Huether 1990)   . My record further confirms the use of P. rigida   as a larval host.